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哈佛大学资深教授戴维·珀金斯关于教学和学习的一套通俗又实用的理论。
或许我的这种平庸水平听上去很差劲,但我却对自己能起到作用感到满意。(我打棒球一般化,既不是特别擅长,也不是太糟。我只能达到这种水平。我总接不住冲我飞来的球,因而常常被分配担任外场手)

我在学打棒球时,大部分时间并非打常规的棒球。我只是在打适合自己玩的初级版棒球。初级版棒球恰好适合我这般大小的哈子,适合我们邻里小伙伴。
不过,我在学习那些零打碎敲的数学和历史内容时,遇到的却不是什么初级版的内容,这有点像不了解棒球整体而进行的击球训练。
教育的目的就在于,帮助人们学会在自身发展过程中无法轻易学会的事情。教育总得要问这样一个问题:要做什么才能让人们掌握具有挑战性的知识和能力。
那些(未来)的教师们听了无数关于学习的理论和如何活跃课堂气氛的说教,但他们只花了少得可怜的实践来进行教学实践。
人们对“要素症”和“了解病”的不满,并不在于他们导致我们一事无成,而在于我们本应该学会更多东西。
学生难以将数学应用到科学,“就像穿过走廊由数学教室走到科学教室,学生们马上就忘记了数学。”(上物理课看学生桌面上还摆着数学书,是因为上节课结束还没来得及放起来...)
学习始终是偶发现象。教育是对学习的舞美设计
“没有人是座孤岛,是岛的全部。每个人都是大陆的一分子,是整体的一部分。”
就像东方的地毯,人们看到的是让人叹为观止的花色图案,却看不到下面错综复杂的织绒。
“要素症”和“了解病”导致的是过度劳累而无功的学习方式,仅仅是玩表面的全局游戏。
围绕教育的高谈阔论有很多都强调人要达到优秀,优秀的确是人们梦寐以求的圣杯。如果在各个领域内,大多数人获得的是积极的平庸,而不是消极的博学多才,那么这个世界将会是一个更美好的地方。
我们今天所学并不是为了今天,而是为了后天。有时,后天与今天差不多,但更多时候还是有很大区别的。
1、玩全局游戏;2、让游戏值得玩;3、在难点部分下功夫;4、打客场比赛;5、发现潜在的游戏;6箱同队和其他队队员学习;7、学会学习。很难想出还有什么比学会学习更值得学习的。

1、玩全局游戏
高山现象与发现问题
远在天边的一座座山峰显得很小,但当你真正走进它们时,却会发现它们实际上要大得多。
解决问题是处理好已经相当清楚的问题。
我几乎总是成功地解决问题,但那些问题全都来自课本或教师。我从来未承接过类似于工程的事情或开放性的调查工作。结果是必然的:我拥有很多解决问题的丰富技能,却几乎没有发现问题的能力。发现问题是玩全局游戏不可分割的一部分。

自由形式的做法对刚踏入某一学习领域的人来说作用并不太好。某些版本的基于问题学习方式和基于项目学习爱方式会太过松散,尤其是在学生刚刚着手学习时。学生需要一些已经得到解决的清晰范例和强有力的指导,而这种指导以后可逐渐减少。

探求全局游戏、找到初级版的游戏、找到恰当的游戏、让游戏保持动态、游戏是为了理解...
初级版会让学生从一开始就参与到全局游戏中,并将零散的内容放到一个更大的场景中,这对今后的学习意义深远。

pace节奏 focus重点 stretch适宜的挑选 stick坚持性

英文书摘 李海妹Laura Lee

2、让游戏值得玩
(生活强暴了你,你还给生活生了个娃。)
选择学习值得学的知识
学生们为应付考试而学习的知识,并不与他们的实际生活发生练习。“惰性知识
John Deway 以富有应用机会和联系的学习主题为中心。“生成性知识
能与学生的兴趣和关注产生共鸣,更重要的是,也能与老师的兴趣和关注产生共鸣。
谨防“计算机病”
不要将生成性知识与知识好玩或非常实用的东西混为一谈。
“学习的设计常常太膨胀被赋予了它不配有的重要性。”
Smart School我们最重要的选择是我们想教什么。(学校的任务不仅仅是让老师“教会”、学生“学会”,更是让老师“会教”,让学生“会学”,学校任务的核心是让老师“教会教”和学生“学会学”2017.4.14)
你作为学生的水平,很大程度上依赖于你被期待和你自己期待成为哪种学生。我们一般倾向于认为,成为一名好学生不过是一个能力问题,其实它还是一个极为重要的意向问题,即学生对学习的信心和投入。(优秀是一种条件,同同时也是一种选择。涉及到学生的自我认知、发掘和外部的唤醒)
老师对学生的期许具有一种皮格马利翁般的效应。(故事里维纳斯成全了那位雕塑家爱上了那惹人怜爱的雕塑的美梦。而现实的问题是老师和家长对孩子的期许的强烈让学生忘记了自己,像是在为别人成长)

“有条件教学”,老师说话要少用绝对词,多用“可能是”和“或许是”这样的表达。这类的措辞会诱导学生尽力理解学习内容,并自己做决定。有选择比没有选择会让人产生更大的参与程度和更深的学习深度。
我们要创造一种机会文化,而非一种要求文化。

3、在难点部分下功夫
练习你的错误
天资与所谓的“刻意训练”相比,发挥的作用微不足道。
学生们似乎不太懂得发现自己的错误。
所有教育工作者都希望有比这更深刻的东西,但大量的教学实践却迎合常规知识,说它已经相当不错了。
运动中的物体在课堂上保持运动,但在操场上却会停下来。
最没有用的困难学理就是责怪学生。
学生如何能经常得到来自我和其他学生的信息丰富的反馈,并很快有机会采用这一反馈。
4、打客场比赛
学习迁移是一个打客场比赛。学到的点滴不仅能在原先的场合下运用,而且能运用到会有助益的其他场合。
学校会变成学习修道院,与外界几乎老死不相往来。学生在这些修道院里读书,只是为了接着读更高级的课本。修道院般的学校并非一种臆想。一般教育机构在某种程度上都显露出这种修道院的特点。
(不少)哈佛大学的学生被问及如何解释夏天热冬天冷时,认为地球在夏天靠太阳更近。
5、发现潜在的游戏
历史是由胜利者书写的。
鱼对水一点都不了解。
6、向同队和其他队队员学习
没有一个人的棒球比赛
7、学会学习
乘客效应与驾驶员效应
当你是一名乘客时,你只需坐车就可以了。看到街道从汽车两侧飞驰掠过,会给你某种航行的感觉,但你有很多东西会遗漏。(其实,司机也会遗漏另外一些吧。学生开车和老师乘坐,对彼此都很有意义的。)
学生是驾驶员,老师是乘客
做自主型驾驶员
对驾驶员的教育 “你不能什么都拥有!不然你往哪里放?”

后记
学习的未来
谁也不会料到自己何时会遇到需要学习点什么的场合。
全局性学习的目的在于,让学生现在就参与到某种全局游戏,作为日后参与更大、更高级游戏的第一步。
知识是按照需要用过去的经验编织的,而且被正在展开的体验所揭示。全局学习就需要学生把自己一般经验或刚接受的教育中获得的知识带进游戏中,以通过游戏本身发现新的技能、知识和见识。
全局游戏会产生下一步该做什么的困境,学生可锲而不舍地去解决这些困难,从而扩大自己的行动库。
相当多的学习是自发产生,并可为由强调、深思和有目的的反复练习而梳理出来的知识所拓展。一般来说,全局学习的原则需要学生在学习某内容之前、期间和之后,做全局性深思,以为将来获得重要意义。

全局学习直接目的是从生动的当下学习。其目标是在能让人体验到直接意义和本身价值的努力(可导致构建更高版本的全局游戏初级版)中构建学习。
良好的学习在于:为了明天,而向充满丰富体验的今天学习。
我们绝不可能激发每个人的学习热情,要这样想就太天真了。但是,没有什么比不关心学习或只想逃避学习的学生,更让老师感到无可奈何了。
向本队和其他队队员学习。这里的学习并不是学生的学习,而是指我们老师在学校环境中向他人学习。

明天是一个运动中的目标。
在生机勃勃的全球文化中,人们广泛成人始终存在学习挑战,但却难得像直面无知那样坦白。

Marlys Witte“无知图”用来阐述的不是我们的已知,而是我们的未知。已知的未知是你知道自己不知道的一切事物;未知的未知是你不知道自己不知道的一切事物;错误是你自认为知道却并不知道的一切事物;未知的已知是你不知道自己知道的一切事物;禁忌是指有危险的、亵渎神灵的知识;拒绝是指令人太痛苦而无法知道的一切事物,所以你不知道。

我们应在思考会诱导或很快会诱导学生关注的学习领域时,不仅要从已知而教育的角度出发,还要从未知而教育的角度出发。

英文书摘 李海妹Laura Lee
Making Learning Whole---David Perkins
The Seven Principles of Learning By Wholes
1 Play the whole game.
2 Make the game worth playing
3 Work on the hard parts.
4 Play out of town.
5 Uncover the hidden game.
6 Learn from the team...and other teams.
7 Learn the game of learning.
Acknowledgement 前言(感谢)
Content:
1 Elements first. Ramp into complexity gradually by learning elements now and putting them together later. Approaching complexity by way of elements has enormous appeal. Starting with elements first works quite well for producing cars on an assembly line out of drivetrains, engines, and tires. The problem is that elements don't make much sense in the absence of the whole game, and the whole game only shows up much later if at all.
2 What 's not relevant to the test gets dumped and what is relevant gets chopped up into test-sized bites. this doesn't have to happen. it doesn't have to happen...but it's the trend.
3 We can ask ourselves when we begin to learn anything, do we engage some accessible version of the whole game early and often? When we do, we get what might be called a threshold experience, a learning experience that gets us past initial disorientation and into the game. From there, it's easier to move forward in a meaningful and motivated way. Much of the formal learning is short on threshold experience.
4 Only then did I become aware that my parents weren't getting any better. They were doing and doing, but not learning by doing.
5 Think about something that you've done for a number of years. Very often, you will find that you're not getting any better at it. The missing ingredient is usually our third principle: work on the hard parts.
6 The hard parts have an annoying characteristic: they do not always get better just through playing the whole game. Real improvement depends on deconstructing the game, singling out the hard parts for special attention, practicing them on the side, developing strategies to deal with them better, and reintegrating them soon into the whole game. Batting practice!
7 What we learn today is not for today but for the day after tomorrow. sometimes the day after tomorrow. Sometimes the day after tomorrow is pretty much the same as today, but it very often is not.
8 The trouble is, in formal education usually no one sends us out of town to play and broaden our experience.
9 It's as though walking across the hall from the math room to the science room, the students forget their math.
10 Do your own work! If there were Ten Commandments for the conduct of pupils, this is a pretty good candidate for the top of the list; good by the measure of common practice but odd by the measure of how society works. Hardly anything we do is done solo. No matter whether you are an athlete, a business person, a scientist, a trash collector, or a clerk, you are almost always coordinating with other people in a complex way. Human endeavor is deeply and intrinsically collective, except in schools.
11 It's actually very hard to learn well from a single source, from a passive text or from a teacher who has many others to attend to besides yourself. Much better is a personal coach, but most individuals cannot afford that, nor can most societies afford to provide personal coaches for any process of widescale learning! And even that personal coach can only tell you about the art and craft of coordinating with others on whatever team you're on, not do it for you.
12 Learning by wholes does share with behaviorism the idea that tings go better when feedback is immediate and informative and when the incentive structures around an endeavor are largely positive and not deeply threatening.
13 I can hardly think of anything more worth learning than learning to learn.
14 You can't build the top of the pyramid before you put the bottom in place. You can't ascend to heights of understanding and creative problem solving until you establish some foundational facts and routines.
15 Learning by wholes treats learners as aware and active and capable of becoming more so.
16 One concern is that "game" is too light for serious matters like the plays of Shakespeare of the founding of our nation..I half agree with both concerns. I wish that the metaphor of learning the whole game was not so light sounding, although I also sometimes think that we approach the entire enterprise of education too gravely and should lighten up a bit.
17 No man is an island, entire of itself; every man is a piece of the continent, a part of the main.
18 Much of the rhetoric around education emphasizes excellence, and indeed excellence is a fine grail to seek. However, imagine a world where almost any adult had a kind of energetic if simple sense of civic engagement or ecological responsibility or avoidance of prejudice. Starting from the baseline of today's indifference and neglect, these "games" do not have to be played in a very sophisticated ways to do substantial good! The world would be a better place if in areas like these most people achieved active mediocrity rather than passive erudition.
Language:
1 The results were only so-so but the process was pretty good.
2 Those sunny afternoons with the smell of grass and a bit of sweat and a cheap leather glove on my hand still linger in my mind.
3 Some learning comes easy.
4 differences between grass, clay and hard courts (tennis)
5 In most people's minds, baseball and math probably do not sit in the same category.
6 What is true for baseball is true for just about any endeavor.

Chapter I Play the Whole Game
Content
1 The problem was problem finding. There is a very useful rough distinction between problem solving and problem finding. Problem solving is the art and craft of dealing well with problems that are already reasonably clear. Sometimes we find such problems in a book. Sometimes they emerge as blatant needs in the course of everyday life. Wherever they came from, there they are, and we burrow into them and try to dig through them. Just because they are clear in outline does not make them easy.
2 Apply this simple test: If there's no problem-finding in sight, you can be sure that the learners are not playing the whole game.

The Quest for the Whole Game
3 It's never just about content. Learners are trying to get better at doing something.
It's never just routine. It requires thinking with what you know and pushing further. Rather than just standard routine problems, it involves open-ended or ill-structured problems.
It's never just problem solving. It involves problem finding.
It's never just about right answers. It involves explanation and justification.
It's not emotionally flat. It involves curiosity, discovery, creativity, camaraderie.
It's not in a vacuum. It involves the methods, purposes, and forms of one or more disciplines or other areas, situated in a social context.

The Kinds of Whole Games
1 Mindsets are not just the products of the values we hold but the roles we play.
2 Not so fast! As the saying goes, the devil is in the details.
It's not just the form, it's the content and thinking. The principal challenge of constructing a whole game is not one of choosing a framework like problem-based learning, but filling the framework with an insightful conception of the game.
Also, it's not just playing the whole game, it's the other six principles.
And finally, it's not just-or even particularly-discovery learning.
Free form practices do not work very well for beginners in a domain. Some versions of loose, especially as learners get started. The learners need clear, worked-out examples and strong guidance, gradually faded back.

The Quest for the Junior Game 找到初级版的游戏
1 However, these junior versions capture a range of basic structural features of the full-scale game. They demand inquiry, problem finding, justification, explanation, indeed, the full range of earmarks listed earlier.
2 Junior versions involve learners meaningfully in whole games from the beginning and situate bits and pieces meaningfully in a bigger picture.
3 Ideally junior versions provide students with what the Introduction called threshold experiences, experiences that usher them in to new worlds of baseball, historical inquiry......
3 Choosing a good junior version for beginners is an art that should be embraced with care and commitment. Part of the art if throwing out what is not so important yet, while leaving the general spirit and shape of the game intact. Part of the art is substitution. Part of the art is simply maintaining a reasonable level of challenge, not tossing beginner with the experts.
4 In the quest for a good junior game, the mix of throwing out and swapping in and maintaining a reasonable level of challenge reflects not only convenience, but the teacher's sense of what the learners already knows and therefore what will prove to be an accessible next step. This requires attention not just to what individual students are supposed to have learned considering their age and history, but what they have actually learned and how agile they are as learners, leading into the many practices of differentiated instruction. Learning by wholes helps by providing latitude: There are many different ways and levels through which learners can engage in a whole game.
5 Prior knowledge is the platform on which learners build.
6 Children often display more skill and insight than expected if only the task is posed in the right way, with familiar materials, avoiding language that they might understand, and providing tips and hints. Much depends on the choice of a good junior version!
7 Each step along such a staircase of junior version is potentially another threshold experience, an entry into a more complex and sophisticated understanding.
8 And where does it all end? For any rich pursuit there is no real end. The possibilities for advancing a scholarly or practical craft further are endless. Today's most sophisticated versions are likely to be junior to tomorrow's.

The Quest for the Right Game 找到恰当的游戏
1 Exciting activities are so seductive for teachers and students alike that it's easy to lose track of that goal.

Keeping the Game in Motion 让游戏保持动态
1 Just because the learners are there does not mean that they are learning much. Effective learning requires artful management of the entire situation to lift academic learning time toward something close to the total time available, making the most of it rather than letting it slip away like sand between one's fingers.
2 It may be helpful in considering academic learning time to think in terms of 4 attributes: pace, focus, stretch, and stick.
Pace: Is each learner actively involved most of the time? Time that is adequately paced avoids drift and slack moments.
Focus: Do learners' activities fall within the core game we would like to see them getting better at, rather than taking some other form of busyness.
Stretch: Are learners being optimally challenged? When learners are finding everything easy, they are not likely to be learning much, nor are they when they are constantly encountering deep frustrations.
Stick: Are parts of the unfolding pattern of activity designed specifically to help knowledge, understanding, and skill stick in place? Stick includes elements such as deliberate rehearsal, reflection, stock taking, and revisiting ideas and practices later and then again later.
3 When students listen to a lecture or watch a video, are they just supposed to listen, or do they have a task to do that helps to keep them processing ideas actively? When a teacher fields a question from one student, what do the others take to be their roles, and how can those roles be made active? In group work, are the groups small enough to reduce the problem of group work, are the groups small enough to reduce the problem of marginal participants? In the whole-class interactions with the teacher, is wait time employed, giving students time to think after a question is posed rather than calling on someone instantly, which on the one hand allows for little reflection and on the other favors students who already think they know the answer? When students ponder a question in class, are they asked to write down a few words, because when they have to write, that means mobilizing their thoughts to the point of specificity? Good pace, in other words, is a matter of organizing the subtleties in ways that promote the active engagement of most of the learners most of the time.
Gaming for Understanding 游戏是为了理解
1 Our real criterion of understanding has to be performance. People understand something when they can think and act flexibly with that they know about it, not just rehearse information and execute routine skills.
2 We can easily feel that we “get it" when we in fact do not.
3 There is another way of thinking about understanding that is also helpful-mental models.
4 Mental models are an important part of the story of understanding and the story of learning by wholes. Broadly speaking, mental models are images or ideas or structures we hold in mind. They need not be visual. Mental models are the game board of the mind.
5 One of the jobs of creative teaching and learning is to put the intended game within reach, to provide threshold experience with it.

Wonders of Learning: Play the Whole Game章末:关于学习的几个想知道
I wonder how I can organize learning around a “whole game.”I probably need to engage learners in some kind of inquiry or performance involving problem solving, explanation, argument, evidence, strategy, skill, or craft. Learners would often produce something--a solution, an image, a story, an essay, a model. I should take care that the inquiry or performance not only engages learners but focuses on what I really want them to learn.
I wonder how I can tell whether I have a whole game. It's likely not routine but require thinking; it's not just problem-solving but involves problem finding; it's not just about right answers but involves explanation and justification; it's not emotionally flat but stimulates curiosity, discovery, creativity, camaraderie; it's not in a vacuum but engages methods, purposes, and forms of disciplinary or other practice in a social context.
I wonder how I can get learners started with a whole game even though they're just beginners. I could try to find a good junior version, maybe a very junior one. Junior versions at their best give learners threshold experiences, inducting them into a meaningful practice.
I wonder how I can keep the game in motion, keep the learners “playing”. I might pay attention to "pfsst"---pace(learners individually involved most of the time), focus(learners thoughtfully doing what they're supposed to get better at), stretch(optimal challenge), and stick(review, reflection, rehearsal, and stock taking.)
If I wonder about these things and do something about them,I'll be teaching for understanding. People understand something when they can think and act flexibly with what they know about it in new situations, not just rehearse information and execute routine skills.

Chapter II Make the Game Worth Playing 让游戏值得玩
1 Learning becomes increasingly decontextualized, such that students find increasingly little that is directly relevant or useful in their daily lives.
2 energize learners with a sense of purpose, progress, and payoff.

Learning What's Worth Learning
1 Most students just plain forget most of what they have been taught. What they remember they often do not understand well. And what sticks with understanding often sees little active use
2 Inert knowledge: knowledge that students dig out for the quiz but don't connect to situations in the midst of their lives where it might contribute.
3 Why is forgotten, misunderstood, and inert knowledge such a plague? Surely there are many factors, but much of the blame has to fall on the basic disconnectedness of much of what students learn in schools.

Making the Most of Understanding 最大限度利用理解
使用生态词汇的填字游戏
There is plenty of thinking to be done here if the puzzle is well designed. The trouble is this kind of thinking has less to do with understanding ecologies and more to do with fitting words together. The crossword puzzle may be worthwhile for other reasons, but it is not an understanding performance about ecology. It lacks the right focus.

Making the Most of Expectations 最大限度利用预期
How good a learner are you? An especially provocative finding from research on learning says that the league of learner you are depends significantly on the learner you are expected to be and expect yourself to be.
We tend to think of being a good learner as a matter of ability, but it is also enormously a matter of disposition, learners' confidence in and commitment to learning.
Good coaches accomplish what they do not only by teaching skills but by fostering dispositions. They project high expectations and build the confidence and commitment of every member of the team. This does not mean that people are all alike. Of course they are not. However, aptitude is not the same thing as attitude, and attitudes--both teachers' and students'--turn out to count for a lot!

Making the Most of Choice 最大限度利用选择
1 A pleasant operatic experience for her translates into three very slow hours for me. This is just a reminder that even within areas of considerable basic interest learners of any age of ilk are not going to like everything put before them equally. It's obvious but important: people have their preferences, their learning, their quirks.
2 It turns out that intrinsic motivation is not just a matter of individual preferences but the style of the overall undertaking.
3 One fine way of stoking enthusiasm is choice. When learners feel that they have a choice about just where they focus their attention and just how they proceed, they are more likely to show intrinsic motivation and , along with, this broader and deeper learning.
4 People tend to react negatively to constraints in ways that range from passive resistance to minor sabotage to outright large-scale rebellion.
5 Classroom involves a great deal of constraint--what you must master, when things are due, what protocols of deportment to observe. There is no question that considerable structure is necessary, but to the extent that learners e experience all structure and no latitude, reactance is likely to set in and undermine intrinsic motivation. A little elbow room goes a long way.
6 It's not just choice but the reasons for the choice. Considerable research argues that extrinsic motivation can undermine intrinsic motivation.
7 In the late 90s, Harvard psychologist Ellen Langer and colleagues introduced the idea of conditional instruction, where the language included fewer absolutes and more phrases like " could be" and "may be." Such locutions invite learners to engage with the content and make up their own minds.
8 In a complementary 2000 study, Iyengar and Lepper found that too much choice may undermine intrinsic motivation. A number of studies have demonstrated that a few choices yield more engagement and deeper learning than none. However, when the number of choices balloons to 20 or 30, intrinsic motivation drops.

Challenge, Imagination and More 最大限度地利用挑战和想象
1 When capacity trumps challenge, we get bored, and when it's the other way around, we get frustrated. Between the two is the motivational sweet spot of optimal challenge.
2 Sure there are requirements, but I want to create a culture of opportunity rather than a culture of demand.

Wonders of Learning: Make the Game Worth Playing 章末:关于学习的几个想知道
I wonder how I can teach what's worth learning. I can take advantage of the choices I have about what topics to treat and how to frame them. I might foreground generative topics and understandings of wide scope that illuminate fundamental questions of human nature, society, ethics, the nature of knowledge, and more.
I wonder how I can make the most of beginnings. For one thing, I could watch out for piling up logistics and rules at the beginning. Let me establish an open curious spirit...and figure out a way to get learners into some junior version of the whole game soon.
I wonder how I can make the most of understanding, a powerful motivator. It might help to organize learning with the teaching for understanding framework: generative topics, understanding goals, understanding performances, ongoing assessments.
I wonder how I can make the most of expectations. For a start, I could watch out for sending subtle signals of low expectations. I want to cultivate confident proactive mindsets, not by propagandizing but by configuring things so students can succeed step-by-step and come to believe they can improve their capacity.
I wonder how I can make the most of choice. I'm reminding myself here that everyone does not have to do exactly the same thing. My learners could find energy in individual choices. Sure there are requirements, but I want to create a culture of opportunity rather than a culture of demand.
I wonder how I can make the most of challenge. I could start by finding an approachable junior version of the game and configure activities with elbow room so that different students can find their own best levels of challenge.
I wonder how I can make the most of the imagination. Here I might get help from cognitive tools that excite the imagination, such as story, metaphor, binary contrasts, heroes, reality and its extremes.
Chapter 3 Work on the Hard Parts
1 Like so many around the world, when I was a child I took piano lessons. Unlike many, I had some enduring enthusiasm for the project. My parents did not have to nag me to practice.
2 I was fun, but certainly not all fun. I was never keen about working on the hard parts. I liked Plan A: play my pieces through several times. Not so interesting was Plan B: Concentrate on a particular piece, single out the several measures that gave the most trouble, analyze what the wrinkles were, revise my hand position and fingering, and play those measures with care a number of times to iron out the wrinkles.
2 The problem is, Plan doesn't work very well. There is a common phrase for that goes wrong: practicing your mistakes. By and large, the hard parts don't get any better just by playing the whole piece a number of times. Even as the rest of the piece improves in fluency and expressiveness, the hard parts remain a series of stumbles and fumbles. I never did come to enjoy working on the hard parts, although I came to pay somewhat more attention to them. I learned that it was a necessary part of the process, but for me it was always a grudging part. My heart remained with Plan A.
3 Talent plays a negligible role compared to what he called deliberate practice.
4 This isn't just a matter of practicing the hard parts in the sense of repetition. It involves deconstructing them and reconstructing them so they are executed in new and better ways.

Slighting the Hard Parts 不能轻视难点部分(应该是轻视)
Hearts-and-minds theory:
Take it to heart, keep it in mind, and do better next time.
1 The hearts-and-minds theory is the default practice all over the world.
2 There is so much wrong with the hearts-and-minds theory that I hardly know where to begin. For one thing, hearts-and-minds theory assumes that the heart is there, that learners care about improving the performance in question, care even though the class is now moving on to the next topic, care enough to pay attention not just to the grade but to the feedback, trying to remember it and put it to work when attempting similar tasks in the future.
For another, hearts-and-minds assumes minds with enough understanding of the topic to make sense of relatively sparse feedback and use it effectively. For yet another, the hearts-and-minds theory proceeds as though the learners will have an opportunity to try again soon. Very often they do not. Even the most committed hearts and agile minds are not likely to hold onto feedback well enough to inform a second try weeks from now, say on the final exam or when the next essay is due.
3 He began with a hypothesis that made good sense to both of us: If students paid more attention to the errors they made, recorded them in an errors log, diagnosed what went wrong, and reviewed their typical shortfalls before doing assignments and quizzes, their performance would improve.
4 He compared the performance of the students keeping error logs with that of students in the same three classes not keeping error logs. Disappointedly, he discovered that the error logs helped not at all. There was no significant difference in performance.
5 It looks as though we have to get well beyond the naive hearts-and-minds approach.

Embracing the Hard Parts 欣然接受难点部分 (拥抱难点不是很好嘛)
1 Good timing is everything! Well maybe not everything but a lot.
2 Ongoing assessment: The basic idea of ongoing assessment was assessment early and often, not just as topics wind down. Assessment in this spirit does not concern assignment of grades or evaluation of whether instruction was effective. It's assessment designed squarely to feed into the learning process and make the learning stronger.
3 Actionable Assessment: right-wrong feedback typically does not provide enough information for learners. Broad comments like "needs more evidence" are also not helpful.
4 assessment for understanding
5 Peer and Self-assessment: One of the practical dilemmas of ongoing assessment is teacher time. In most settings, teachers do not have the time to provide all the feedback needed for good learning every day. Students evaluate one another's work or even self evaluation with the help of a rubric, a specific set of guidelines about what to look for.
6 It's true that students are often uncertain about what to say. It's also true that they are often reluctant to correct their peers. However, simple criteria or rubrics help hugely, enabling most students to give reasonably thoughtful feedback. Besides, the students learn as much from assessing as being assessed. Giving the feedback demands a reflective stance and specific articulation of problems, so students will develop evaluative skills they can apply to their own work too.
7 Communicative Feedback
Three different styles of feedback: corrective, conciliatory and communicative.
All of them are relevant to the classroom as well as the workplace. Often feedback is simply corrective. The giver of feedback announces what's wrong. There's no cross-check on whether the idea or essay or other object of evaluation is truly understood. Positive features get no or only passing attention. The basic pattern of corrective feedback is, "Yes, but..." or "Good, but...," moving quickly on to the difficulties.
Another common pattern is conciliatory feedback. This appears frequently in peer evaluation and in social and organizational settings where people want to be nice. So they make a few vague positive comments that are completely uninformative. "Well, basically I liked it! I thought it made some good points. So what did you do last weekend?"

In contrast, the alert boss, peer, or teacher might offer communicative feedback. As the name suggests, this is feedback structured to ensure good communication. It involves three key elements in roughly this order: clarification, appreciation, and concerns and suggestions.
* Clarification: To guard against misunderstanding of what's on the table, communicative feedback allows for some kind of upfront check, such as questions of clarification. Although this is easiest in one-on-one conversations, the principle applies to written work also. I can remember writing students quick notes or grabbing them in class to clarify their intentions. The age of e-mail makes this all the easiest.
* Appreciation. Communicative feedback includes clear identification of positive features as seen by the evaluator. This may not be as elaborate as the critical comments to follow, but it is a clear developed presence. The recipient of the feedback knows what in your view worked well, what to hold onto, and what to keep doing.
* Concerns and suggestions. Then communicative feedback shares concerns and suggestions. These focus on a positive future: how to improve this or do better next time. They avoid criticism of the person's capabilities or character and address the situation.
The point of clarification and appreciation is not just to be nice but to be informative.
Assessment embedded seamlessly in the flow of events often feels more authentic and arouses less defensiveness.

Ready Opportunities to Act on the Assessment 就评估采取行动的现成机会
One principal difficulty with the hearts-and-minds theory is assessment too general to act upon effectively, but another principal difficulty is no ready opportunity to act on it.
In general, trouble spots improved through advice and isolated exercise often relapse in the setting of the whole game. Incorporating the improved skill or understanding into the whole game needs to be a deliberate part of the process of deliberate practice. When we take learning the hard parts seriously, the rhythm of isolation and reintegration is fundamental.
Skilled Knowledge
Challenges of skilled knowledge pervade second-language learning. You cannot function as a fluent speaker or writer laboriously retrieving grammatical forms moment by moment; they need to be at your mental fingertips, the tip of your pencil, and the tip of your tongue.

Building a Theory of Difficulty 建立一种困难学理(建立困难理论)
1 One of the most important questions we can ask as educators is, "what makes this hard?" When we have a good answer to this question, we are anticipating the hard parts that go with a particular topic or activity. Maybe with the right approach, we can prevent those hard parts from doing their worst damage.
2 Perhaps the least helpful theory of difficulty, almost a perverted one, is blame-the-learners. What makes this hard? "well, it's these kids. They just don't study. They just don't care. They really weren't very well prepared by what they studied before." What is so insidious about this pseudo-theory of difficulty is that it functions as an excuse for not doing anything difficult.
3 One more thought. The first time you try to teach anything, teaching smarter is almost never smart enough. The first theory of difficulty is like this year's new models of cars or a new operating system from Microsoft, prone to bugs. One just doesn't know enough initially about what the hard parts are going to be like. We teachers and Scout leaders and trainers and curriculum designers need to learn too. We need to work on our own hard parts. And one of the most rewarding hard parts to work on is arriving at a really good theory of difficulty for our learners.
章末:Wonders of Learning (关于学习的几个想知道)
Work on the Hard Parts
I wonder how I can help learners work on the hard parts effectively. For a start, I could arrange regular episodes of deliberate practice that feed back into the whole game.
I wonder how I can avoid the harts-and-minds theory, assessments with the shallow form of " take it to heart, keep it in mind, and do better next time," I'll need to figure out how learners could get frequent rich feedback from me or other learners, with opportunities to use the feedback soon.
I wonder how to establish a strong rhythm of learning around the hard parts. I'm remembering that a strong rhythm embraces rather than slights deliberate practice, with ongoing actionable assessments focused on understanding, peer and self-assessment, communicative feedback, implicit assessment, immediate occasions to apply, and a pattern of isolation and reintegration into the whole game.
I wonder how to see the hard parts coming. I could try to anticipate my topic's most likely pattern of troublesome knowledge(ritual, inert, foreign, tacit, skilled, and conceptually difficult) and organize learning in ways that work against it.
I wonder how to develop a good theory of difficulty for what I'm teaching. Here my own experience is a key resource. I could try not only to identify but explain to myself learners' specific difficulties, which would help me to teach smarter, not just harder.
I wonder how I can use not only exercises but "etudes". Exercises that isolate hard parts are important, but I'm thinking I might design "etudes", whole games chosen to provide practice with particular target difficulties.

Chapter 4 Play out of Town 打客场比赛
In other words, transfer is a matter of "playing out of town," applying the games we learn and bits and pieces of those games not just in their original contexts but elsewhere, in some other setting where they might be helpful.
The Meaning of Transfer 迁移的含义
1 Why all the fuss about transfer anyway? Without transfer understood in one way or another way, under one label or another, general education would make little sense. The whole point of education is to prepare people with skills and knowledge and understanding for use elsewhere, often very elsewhere.
2 Let us imagine for a moment what education would be like if anything beyond very near transfer was hard to get. Schools would be monasteries of learning with little to say to the outside world. Participants in these monasteries would learn to read only to continue to read more advanced texts. No more than that would be possible. They would be prisoners of the tower, learning gorgeously elaborate matters that are always delicately brittle.
2 The trouble is, the monastic school is not enough of a fantasy. In some ways, typical institutions of education display this monastic character. They function as closed systems, teaching and testing content much of which touches how people behave outside only in very narrow and limited ways. Transfer of learning has the potential to leap over the walls of the monastic school, but only if we can figure out how to play out of town well.
The Trouble with Transfer 迁移的困难
1 Educators all over the world assume that the transfer we cant will pretty much take care of itself. When people learn something general in principle, people will apply it in a general way. The sheep just come home. There is no problem of transfer.
2 This optimism is seductive because some of the time there is indeed nothing to worry about. Some knowledge and skills transfer quite readily. Reading is a good example.
3 Also, sometimes we benefit from the direct cue of being asked to do something: Write me a note, pass the salt, can you check these figures? Even very far-transfer is not necessarily a problem when it's strongly cued.
4 In summary, certain conditions facilitate transfer. Strong cues help. Once the possibility of a connection is in our mind, it helps if we can elaborate the connection readily rather than figuring it out as a complicated puzzle.
5 However, such facilitating conditions also are risk factors for transfer. What about situations where the cues are not so strong or the connections not so readily elaborated? Then the sheep do not come home.
5 One person's terrorist is another person's freedom fighter.
6 The most pessimistic view of this challenge is that by and large playing out of town is a game lost before it begins. Some argue that human mind is not equipped to achieve much transfer in the face of risk factors. There is not much to be done about the problem We are stuck with it, not in the extreme sense of the monastic school sketched earlier, but in the still troublesome sense that most learning needs to proceed case by case, situation by situation. In contrast with the Bo Peep theory, I like to call this view the lost sheep theory. The lost sheep theory says that we just have to accept the fact that a lot of the sheep are not going to come home. We just cannot expect much transfer from most learners when the risk factors are significant.
7 He compared the academic success of students who had studies Latin with those who had not, and discovered no advantage whatsoever for the Latin scholars. (haha)
8 Most situations lack the critical ingredient of identical elements. Latin studies, for instance, share no obvious identical elements with mathematics, so why should the former boost the latter?

The Hope for Transfer 迁移的希望
1 Up to this point, it might seem that the lost sheep theory has won over the herd. It certainly has much more empirical support than the Bo Peep theory. However, there is a third view, one that simultaneously challenges the naive Bo Peep theory and the pessimistic lost sheep theory. Just to keep the herd together, I like to call it the good shepherd theory.
2 The good shepherd theory says that transfer can be attained, but the pattern of learning has to favor it. Generally speaking, both the Bo Peep and the lost sheep theories keep educators from paying careful attention to fostering transfer, and so learners do not display the transfer one would like when the risk conditions are high. But when educators make the effort, much more transfer appears. In other words, the sheep will not come home by themselves, but they don't have to be given up for lost either. The transfer has to be "shepherded".
3 We identified two very different mechanisms of transfer called high road transfer and low road transfer. High road transfer is a consequence of reflective abstraction. It occurs when people proceed thoughtfully and make conceptual connection. Low road transfer is a reflexive reaction to the surface characteristics of a situation. It occurs when a new situation spontaneously reminds people of a previous one.
4 We also noted the conditions that favored highroad and low road transfer. High road transfer is more likely when the learning experiences emphasize thinking reflectively about the activity at hand, making broad generalizations, looking for possible connections, and the like. In the absence of such deliberately thoughtful activities, high road transfer is not a good prospect. Recalling the transfer risk factors of noticing the connection and elaborating the connection, reflective abstraction prepares the mind for later noticing and elaborating by coding the initial learning in more general far-reaching terms and elaborating its significance.
5 Low road transfer depends on extensive practice in the original context, to build up pattern recognition processes that might be triggered in other contexts. For low road transfer to reach very far, the original learning has to incorporate experience with a range of contexts, to establish a repertoire of perceptual patterns that might get activated later. Again recalling the risk factors, extensive varied practice prepares the mind for later noticing and elaborating through exercise on divers cases in the first place.
6 The greatest payoff of transfer, may come not from direct transfer of what is learned today, but from the indirect influence of enabling future learning, through a kind of snowball effect.
Shepherding Transfer 引导学习迁移
1 Play out of town! Our god shepherding of transfer is as simple and as complicated as that. One of the most basic principles of learning so basic that it is hardly ever mentioned, say that people learn to do by doing. To foster transfer, the initial learning has to include some of the connection making that we hope learners will do later on.
2 Transfer is very much a goal of "cognition and the Art of Instruction." I want the students not just to learn about the content, but to use it actively, and not just use it actively in the sense of writing essays about it, but apply it to designing real learning, and not just designs they make up for the class, but ones important to their professional and personal lives beyond the course. So I've tried to organize the course with considerable playing out of town. Here are some of the ways.
* The classes constantly go back and forth between theory and examples. The examples have deliberate variety.
* While many nuances of theory and practice are discussed, the most important design principles are laid out in diagrams and summary charts.
* The students design projects rather than papers. Each student needs to produce a prototype of some kind of educational intervention. Some write teachers' manual. Some prepare workshops. Some create Web sites. Some assemble mock-ups of museum displays. Just about anything goes, so long as it constitutes a concrete expression of the educational design rather than just a high-level description. The prototype needs to demonstrate good use of several principles from the course's content, with the student explaining and justifying the connections in a report.
* Students have free choice on their design projects. They are encouraged to select something personally meaningful. Many students are maintaining jobs even as they pursue their degrees, adn they are encouraged to choose projects that serve their professional settings. Sometimes students have already commenced a learning design in a previous semester, or in a professional setting, that they would like to continue. No problem, so long as their future work clearly incorporates design principles from the course.
* The students receive extensive feedback at several stages from pre-proposal to final project, look at other students' projects, identify connections with other courses they are taking, identify connections with prior and current experiences, and engage in many activities of "quick design," applying the design concepts to small problems.
Where does the "playing out of town" occur amidst all this? One way to bring it into high relief systematically is to look at the what, to where, and how of transfer---what is supposed to transfer, to where is it supposed to transfer, and how is the transfer accomplished.
The "what" is the content. I want students to transfer the basic design principles drawn from cognitive science. This is why the course underscores he design principles again and again and summarizes them in a series of charts. As to the "to where", I want students to transfer to a range of practical contexts in their own lives. Thus the course content includes a great range of practical examples, with constant looping between theory and practice; and students are encouraged to develop design projects connected with their own current professional practice and aspirations.
The "how" comes straight out of the framework mentioned earlier, the high road/low road model of transfer from Salomon and Perkins. Sometimes it's easier to say bridging (翻译成架桥是否更好些) and hugging. Bridging means playing out of town in the sense that the learners make a variety of deliberate thoughtful connections. Bridging figures in the course as students constantly reflect on principles and examples, as they practice principle-driven quick design tasks, and as they articulate the rationales for their design prototypes in terms of key concepts from the course.
Hugging means playing out of town in the sense of doing things close to the ultimate envisioned applications. Hugging figures in the course through using a wide range of examples, with the hope that every student finds some examples reflecting areas of special interest. Also hugging enters into the choice of projects, with students encouraged to select projects close to their situations and interests, even projects that will see practical use immediately and projects that continue work thye are already doing in professional settings.
Here comes the inevitable question: Howe well does it all work? As in any educational undertaking, the results are imperfect. On the one hand, a few students always produce projects that make thin use of the design principles the course foregrounds, despite the constant emphasis. Some students always just do not seem to invest the effort, producing shallow design prototypes. On the other hand, many projects are strikingly well developed, often far beyond the actual demands of the course, and it's commonplace for students to produce designs that they proceed to use in their various professional settings. In the balance, I'm pleased and the students seemed to be pleased. I attribute a fair measure of our satisfaction to our several ways of playing out of town.

Transfer as Importing 内向性迁移现象
1 All the examples so far concern transfer as exporting. They ask how today's learning can prepare knowledge for wider use later. However, we can also think of transfer in the opposite direction, transfer in rather than out, transfer designed to enhance the learning of the topic at hand.
2 One familiar application of this principle is simply reminding learners of what they already know and don't know, or getting them to remind themselves. Just about every teacher at one time or another has used some version of the "what I already know, what I think I know, what I need to know" routine.
3 In general, patterns of thought and action likely to involve defensiveness may be hard to learn directly through cases close to home, and easier to learn through cases more superficially remote and then brought home.
4 An expert on organizational development, he explained how he often helps business clients toward insight into the internal problems of thier own organizations. He would tell a story about another organization, one in fact fabricated for the purpose. He would describe the miseries there, the self-defeating practices, the attempts to improve that failed. Listening to the story, his clients would begin to make their own connections, seeing how some of what they heard applied to their own self-defeating behaviors. Far more effective than telling his clients directly what was wrong and what to do about it.
Making the Most of Transfer 最大限度利用迁移
1 Making the most of transfer means teaching whole games in the first place.
2 To get powerful transfer, learners need to learn something that matters widely. Almost any rich topic like the Constitution, kitchen and workshop chemistry, or the Tower of London has the potential, but that potential has to be developed. Unfortunately, a good deal of what students study in typical curricula is too narrow in its framing and detail to matter very much.
3 Criteria for understanding of wide scope:
*Disciplinary significance. Do the ideas have a broad significance within and beyond their own disciplinary context? Do they help us to see the world in a different way?
*Societal significance. Do the ideas speak to concerns of society at large?
*Personal significance. Do the ideas resonate with learners' and teachers' or mentors' or parents' hopes, desires, curiosities, and needs?
* Charisma. Are the ideas magnetic, alluring, arresting? Understandings of wide scope can prove technically useful without having a lot of charisma, but charisma helps.

Wonders of Learning Play Out of Town (章末 关于学习的几个想知道)
I wonder how can I organize today's learning so it informs and empowers learners widely in their lives. For a start, I might ask myself: Where else will today's learning be useful, and how could I help learners to make the connections?
I wonder how I can recognize when transfer is likely to be a problem. Here I want to remember that transfer goes easily when the cues for use elsewhere are strong and the particulars of application elsewhere transparent, as with basic reading skills. Unfortunately, for many topics the cures are weak or the particulars subtle, and today's learning needs to anticipate that.
I wonder how to organize teaching for transfer. Ideas and skills travel to other times and places over the high road of reflective abstraction that codes knowledge with more generality and the low road of diverse applications that provides varied practice. If I could design learning activities involving bridging(reflective abstraction, the high road) and hugging(deliberate efforts to simulate diverse applications, the low road), transfer would improve.
I wonder how content can be learned in a more active way, with more bridging and hugging for better transfer. I'm recalling specific practices that could help, among them problem-based learning and Inventing to Prepare for Learning.(IPL).
I wonder how to enhance content learning by transfer that imports prior knowledge. I could remind learners to remind themselves of prior knowledge in the same or related areas. For sensitive topics, students may learn better by first studying a situation well removed from their own and then bringing it home.
I wonder how to make the most of transfer. I could be ambitious here. Let me find understanding of wide scope within seemingly specific topics and skills and foreground them.

Chapter 5 Uncover the Hidden Game 发现潜在的游戏
The Hidden Game of Strategy 潜在的策略游戏
1 Alan Schoenfeld and his colleagues conducted careful investigations of how to teach the heuristics in a way that truly helped students. To use a concept introduced earlier, Schoenfeld found that students' knowledge of the heuristics tended to be inert. Students learned about the heuristics without deploying them in the course of real problem solving.
2 Schoenfeld discovered that the most important missing ingredient was self-management. Students generally lacked any grand scheme by which to organize their approaches to tackling problems, a scheme that provided natural places for heuristics to come into play and guide the process. Schoenfeld introduced a five-step self-management process that began with analyzing the problem to understand it and find ways to simplify it; continued into a stage of planning an overall approach that avoided premature calculations;and advanced to phases of exploration, implementation, and verification. Schoenfeld coupled this with direct teaching and modeling of a number of heuristics. And he hit the jackpot. The combination of instruction in heuristics and self-management doubled the number of problems students solved, compared to control groups that went over the same practice problems but without explicit attention to heuristics and self-management.
3 Research shows that reading strategies of various sorts can make a considerable difference in learners' understanding and retention of what they read. There are many different approaches to strategic reading. One of the best-know, called reciprocal teaching, was developed by educational psychologists Annemarie Palincsar and Ann Brown. It emphasizes a group dialogue process with four central heuristics: questioning, clarifying, summarizing, and predicting. The reciprocal part means that teachers and students take turns leading the dialogue, a way of ensuring that the students accept responsibility for making the moves themselves. One could see this as a means of promoting their development of self-management processes.
4 Reading strategies are not just for youngsters. For decades the Bureau of Study Counsel at Harvard University ahs offered strategic reading programs to Harvard students faced with the often daunting reading assignments they encounter. Michelene Chi and her colleagues have pursued a systematic program of research on self-explanation, much of it conducted with college students. Self-explanation means pausing to try to explain to oneself what one is reading as one goes along. In fact people often read past difficult passage s and worked examples without grappling with them. The research shows that students who understand better have strong habits of self-explanation, and students trained in self-explanation come to understand better.

Wonders of Learning: Uncover the Hidden Game (章末:关于学习的几个想知道:发现潜在的游戏)
I wonder how I can uncover the hidden game for learners--really games plural. When I think about it, I begin to see hidden games of strategy, causal thinking, inquiry, power, and more. I might reveal these to learners through examples and discussion or point learners in the right direction and ask them what they see.
I wonder how I can treat hidden games accessibly, with learners feeling excited and empowered rather than burdened. I may need to keep things simple at first with very junior versions. I could awaken curiosity and appeal to growing competence. I could encourage self-management, not just good moves.
I wonder how I can get past what learners usually see to reveal the hidden games. Learners often just see outcomes-conclusions, findings, final copy--missing how the game is played to get there. I could focus them on process. Learners often play the role of spectators rather than participants. I could make them participants. The "rules of the game" often aren't explored and discussed. I could help to surface the rules.
I wonder how I can find the safety and courage to uncover sensitive hidden games, for instance, the games of power that permeate society. I could choose my battles by focusing on issues that are revealing but not so sensitive that they make trouble. I could have students study other settings that mirror our own but provide some distance and detachment.
I wonder how I can determine where the hidden games are hiding. Imight bear in mind some typical hiding places: under the rug of simplicity, off the track of common sense, within the margins of "good enough," inside the cloak of the tacit, and beyond the horizon of readiness.

Chapter 6 Learn from the Team 向同队或其他队员学习
Pair Problem Solving 结对解决问题
1 It's a way of getting learners to help one another, but with a curious twist. The idea is not so much for students to offer direct assistance as it is for students to help others to become aware of their own thinking and learning. Lochhead describes thinkback as the use of the think aloud pair problem solving strategy "with the added vision of video playback." The idea is to employ pair problem solving to create a kind of mental movie of the mind at work. The result is a thought image. Students are urged to hold these thought images in mind as a way of learning about thinking and learning and improving the process.
2 So how does pair problem solving work? Our opening story illustrated the basic pattern. Learners pair off. One learner takes the role of problem solver and the other the role of listener. There is a problem at hand, which the problem solver tackles, thinking aloud in the process. The listener listens with the goal of maintaining clarity about the problem solver's process. When the problem solvers falls silent, the listener prompts for information. When the problem solver makes the moves the listener does not fully understand, the listener asks for explanations. After the first problem, the two change roles, the problem solver becoming the listener and the listener becoming the problem solver.
3 The interactions show how the listener does not give advice but instead prompts for explanations. The temptation to give advice is very strong. People get better at pair problem solving over time, and not to give advice is one of the most important things that they learn about the listener rle. On the problem0solver side, many people take to thinking aloud right away, but some find it awkward at first. A key injunction is to avoid "stealth thinking," that is, don't let yourself fall silent. This skill also develops over time. In the process, the learners gain much more perspective on and management of how they think.
4 But why do we need the listener at all? Why not simply ask the problem solver to sit down and talk themselves through the problem aloud to get a better hold on the process? For one thing, stealth thinking is a big trap without prompting by the listener. Problem solvers tend to get absorbed in the problems and end up paying little attention to their own thinking strategies. For another, just because you are thinking aloud does not mean that you are explaining to yourself. The listener's job is to keep the problem solver not only speaking but explaining: "Why this move?" "What do you want out of that?" "Are you getting what you wanted?" "So you changed directions, why did you do that?"
5 Let's examine pair problem solving form the standpoint of learning by wholes: How does it contribute to the 6 principles of learning by wholes besides learn from the team?
*Pair problem solving is not so suited to play the whole game all the way through, because whole games typically unfold over considerable periods with many different sorts of social interactions involved. However, pair problem solving fits work on the hard parts very well. It's a way of concentrating on challenging aspects of an area of learning, wiht the cognitive mirror of the listener providing a kind of moment-to-moent feedback that would be very difficult to set up otherwise. Additionally, make the game worth playing gains by having a companion in the struggle as one tackles hard parts, a companion with whom you will soon switch roles to keep things even.
* As to uncover the hidden game, the listener's questions and the problem solver's answers create a kind of cognitive mirror that reveals the problem solver's process to both. Their partnership and their switching of roles add up to some playing out of town, as each gets inside the head of the other.
*Finally, the entire enterprise supports learn the game of learning: As learners become skilled at pair problem solving, they become much more self-aware and self-managing. So it is that the participation structure of pair problem solving serves the multiple agendas of learning by wholes.

Cross-Age Tutoring 跨年龄辅导教学
1 These twelve-year-olds are seriously involved in and concerned about the learning of heir much-younger peers. This is one brief glimpse into the world of cross-age tutoring, another participation structure through which we can help one another to learn.
2 Adults tutoring youngsters is nothing new, but it is one of the most powerful modes of instruction we know...when done right. Stanford professor Mark Lepper and colleagues have conducted extensive investigations of expert adult-child tutoring. Adults with a good sense of the craft select problems to pose an approachable challenge (zone of proximal development again), guide with questions and hints rather than direct advice and feedback, encourage self-awareness and self-management, frame errors and difficulties as opportunities for good learning, and always provide enough subtle support so that the learner succeeds to some degree with the problem. The effect of this is to serve both emotional and cognitive needs. The results can be truly impressive, with learners advancing dramatically in both attitude and capability.
3 If society could afford and find a one-on-one expert adult tutor for every child, the impact would be quite amazing! But of course, both the affording and the finding are utopian quests. Segue then to Plan B, where with a certain amount of training and support, children take responsibility for tutoring other children. This is second-best to expert adult tutors, of course...well, actually, maybe not, considering the impact on the student tutors as well as the tutees.
4 The basic idea of cross-age tutoring comes with its name: Older students tutor younger students one-on-one. The basic logic of cross-age tutoring is just as transparent. Learning can thrive on individual attention. Given the limited resources of public schooling and the limited availability of expert adult tutors, cross-age tutoring is one way to provide younger learners with a measure of individual attention that would be hard to manage in any other way.
5 Moreover, the advantages suggested for cross-age tutoring go well beyond individual attention. In some cases, it seems that the tutor, just a few years older than the tutee, has a particularly good perspective on the younger peer's mindset and confusions, as well as a knack for establishing a good nonthreatening rapport. Perhaps the most natural concern is that cross-age tutoring takes inappropriate advantage of the tutors. On the contrary, it's generally good for the tutors. On the academic front, they have to polish their own understanding in order to accomplish the tutoring, playing out the familiar saying that the best way to learn is to teach. But the benefits to the tutors go beyond academic advancement. They are learning responsibility, empathy and caring.
6 The teacher plays a tremendously important although less conventional role in all this, organizing and monitoring the process. Details are important. Peer tutoring seems to work best when it has a cross-age character, not the more-advanced kids helping the less-advanced kids in the same class, at least not in a formal tutoring relationship. Initial sessions go better when they are relatively short, twenty minutes or so. Tutoring does not come entirely naturally to the older children. They need a little toolbox of tricks and moves that they build over time with one another's help and the teacher's help. Preparation and debriefing are important, as in the opening example above. Furthermore, teh teacher needs to exercise thoughtful consideration about pairing people up. Who needs attention? Where are the natural matches? What are the envisioned benefits to the particular tutor as well as the tutee?
7 What kind of students make good tutors? The obvious answer, "the smart ones," is not particularly on the mark according to Dennie Briggs. After all, the age gap between tutor and tutee in a well-chosen match means that the tutor will be much more on top of the content anyway. A tutor who has found an area troublesome may be in a particularly good position to help a younger peer with the same woes. Finally, the tutors' efforts to get the story straight are likely to boost their own understanding and confidence.
8 Yet another obvious criterion for good tutors, "the well-behaved ones," also seems off center. Students who are bored and restless can find an engaging focus in their tutoring roles. Students who are rebellious can discover a settling influence in their responsibilities. Indeed, Briggs suggests that the most critical quality is wanting to give it a try. Smart or not so smart, well behaved or not so well behaved, those students that find themselves attracted to the idea for whatever reason have a considerable let up on success.
9 Does it always work well? Of course not. There are many particular puzzles and problems that leave teachers with significant trouble-shooting to do. But odes it basically work? This is the bottom-line question for any such a pattern of practice, and the answer seems to be yes. For example, Stanford researchers conducted an elaborate study comparing four different approaches to improving instruction: cross-age tutoring, computer-assisted instruction, reduction of classroom size, and increased instructional time from adult teachers. Cross-age tutoring proved to be the most effective of the four. Moreover, cross-age tutoring was overwhelmingly more cost effective than increasing instructional time from adults or reducing class size, approaching a quarter of the cost.
10 What are the benefits of cross-age tutoring for learning by wholes? Here it's important to consider both the tutee and the tutor because the pictures are somewhat different. Taking the tutee first, the tutee is not necessarily encountering more play the whole game than in conventional instruction. This depends entirely on the focus of the tutoring, which may be routine aspects of arithmetic with elementitis in full bloom. However, the tutorial interaction is likely to engage young learns more than business as usual--make the game worth playing. As to work on the hard parts, the one-on-one format of cross-age tutoring makes this natural. A certain measure of play out of town and uncover the hidden game comes as a natural consequence of the cross-age relationship. After all, to a six-year-old, a twelve-year-old is very much out of town and is likely to have a better sense of ins and outs of the game. However, this does not mean that these aspects of learning are terribly sophisticated. Finally, skilled adult tutoring calculatedly cultivates persistence, self-monitoring, and other features toward learn the game of learning, but I'm not sure this can be expected for cross-age tutoring. Perhaps it's a front to be developed, though.
11 Turning to the tutor, certainly the tutor is playing an important whole game, the game of teaching and learning. The need of tutors to understand the material more deeply and broadly in order to teach it pulls them somewhat toward the whole disciplinary game and perhaps toward aspects of the hidden game. Just as the twelve-year-old is out of town for the six-year-old, the reverse is also true, and the tutor is likely to gain some broader understanding of the area in question from the misunderstandings of the younger peer, as well as a broader understanding of what younger people are like. Finally, certainly tutors' focus on tutoring reveals much about the game of learning.

Extreme Team Learning 极端式的小组学习
1 Peer problem solving, studio learning, communities of practice, and cross-age tutoring---these participation structures only scratch the surface. We could add to the list project-based learning, where students join together in teams to conduct experiments, construct works of art or investigate aspects of their local community or ecology. We could add problem-based learning, where teams address somewhat open-ended problems, drawing on different sources of knowledge as needed to advance towards potential solutions. This has become a mainstay of medical education in many settings, in contrast to the traditional intensive lecture courses, with medical students mastering content by working through a series of prepared cases in teams, studying as they need to in order to arrive at diagnoses and treatments.
2 We could add debate formats where students prepare arguments and counterarguments on some important historical, political, or scientific issue. Another well-known participation structure is the jigsaw method, where students form teams of four and divide up a topic to be learned. Each student take responsibility for his or her quarter of the pie, learning it well enough to teach it to the others in the group. And the list goes on.
3 It's heartening that so many participation structures afford opportunities to learn from the team, because vigorous use of this principle may be fundamental to educational transformation. Instead of occasional group activities spotted here and there, instead of the rare episode of cross-age tutoring, instead of studio learning for just those subjects that particularly lend themselves, we may need extreme team learning---days and weeks and months with a high percentage of the learning time given over to various version fo learning from the team.

Wonders of Learning : Learn from the Team...And the other teams(章末关于学习的几个想知道)
I wonder how to tap the promise of learning from the team...and the other teams. I could use various group activities to situate learning in more authentic and meaningful sociocultural contexts. It might help here to think in terms of "participation structures," different ways of organizing roles and responsibilities for learning.
I wonder how to make the most of learning from the team. As a general strategy I could organize learning from the team to feed all the other principles of learning by wholes. Team support can help beginners play the whole game, social interactions and responsibilities can help to make the game worth playing, and so on.
I wonder how pairing up learners can serve learning. Here I have some repertoire. One participation structure is pair problem solving, where learners take turns playing the roles of listener and problem solver. Another is cross-age tutoring, where older more-experienced students tutor other less-experienced students, th3 teacher playing the role of mentor and organizer.
I wonder how larger groups can serve learning. The participation structure of communities of practice gives me some ideas here. Also, studio learning with its rhythm of demonstration-lecture, students-at-work, and critique allows students to watch and learn from one another as well as the instructor. Teacher study groups focusing on student work using simple protocols could make up a structured community of practice for our own development as teachers.
I wonder how I can capitalize on other strategies for learning from the team...and the other teams. Once I look around, I see there are many of these participation structures: debates, the jigsaw method, problem-based learning, project-based learning. I might look for what might work best with my situation and give it a try.

Chapter 7Learn the Game of Learning 学会学习
1 Passenger effect: When you are a passenger, you are just along for the ride. Watching the streets go by teaches you something about navigating but leaves a lot out.
2 All this gets more attention in the pages to come. However, still dangling is the how question: How is it going to get learned? Here there is hardly anything more important than the passenger effect and its positive side, the driver effect. With the game of learning, as with finding your way around the neighborhood, people are only going to learn what they need to by doing some of the driving.
3 The coach says it's time for batting practice. The teacher assigns these fifteen problems for next Tuesday. In many settings of formal learning, the learners themselves do hardly any of the driving. They do not have very many choices. Authors, curriculum designers, adn teachers set up everything for them--define clearly and fully the game to be learned (whole game or not), motivate them through incentives and arguments for relevance, define the hard parts in advance, and ensure that the hard parts are well exercised. The general rule: Spell it out for them.
4 When we micromanage the entire process for learners, they may learn the targeted content, but they are not so likely to learn how to learn. They are not so likely to learn the skills and not so likely to learn the take-charge mindset, the disposition of managing one's own learning.
5 We are supposed to organize learners' experiences for learning by wholes, but not organize so much that they are never in the driver's seat. Instead, we want to put them in the driver's seat in small ways. We want to create threshold experiences for them about what it's like to drive. Then we want to make the autonomy greater, the threshold grander. We want to teach them to drive, and we can't do that without letting them drive!
The Driver's Seat 学生是驾驶员
1 Teachers would explore with students a reasonable ambition and work something out, deciding with the learner rather than deciding for the learner.
2 With students more often in the driver's seat, the natural worry for any teacher is losing control, so especially impressive was a tale of a bright, mischievous, and manipulative girl. A bout of particularly offensive behavior meant that she would not be allowed to participate in a class trip. But what would happen to her instead? Suspension for a couple of days would not be productive. Schools are for learning. Instead, she would stay in school and keep learning. And what would she learn?
3 One exercise was writing. Rather than the teacher jotting a note to the mother, the girl was asked to compose a letter describing the situation--and a good one: neat, correct grammar, clear explanation. The letter ended up requiring three drafts. And what if the child failed to deliver the letter to her mother? Well, the principal explained, in that case, the child would speak to her mother by phone. Not me, the principal emphasized. We'll call from my office on speakerphone, I will say as little as possible, and we will see how the conversation goes.
4 All this is bright with democratic spirit. It's easy to acknowledge that such driver-seat school cultures are very good for building the skills and dispositions of learning to learn. Just as important, they are very good for the nitty-gritty of learning too.
The Passenger's Seat 老师是乘客
1 Many high school chemistry or physics lab experiences lead students through the "whole game" of scientific investigation, but every stop of the way they are told what step to take next. Such passenger roles treat learners entirely as though they are along for a ride that someone else has planned and someone else is conducting: Please just be a good traveler, comply with the agendas of the journey, and don't make trouble.
2 In passenger-seat cultures of learning, students often fall into shallow patterns of learning. Considerable research exists on students' mindsets about learning, a surprising amount of it at the university level where you might expect maturity but often do not find it. In a well-known analysis, Roger Saljo of University of Gothenberg, Sweden, uncovered very different approaches to learning. Some students show a disposition toward acquiring, reproducing, and applying information of a factual character. Others put understanding at the center and eagerly explore different perspectives.
3 Saljo, Ference Marton, Noel Entwistle, Dai Hounsell, and many others went on to write about shallow versus deep versus strategic approaches to learning. The shallow approach concentrates on getting the facts and skills straight, trying to look good, and especially trying not to look bad. (哈哈)The deep approach reaches for comprehensive understanding and cherishes intrinsic motivation rather than looking good. A strategic approach has a little of both: It targets recognition of good performance through grades and other kudos, with an emphasis on managing the work process well. It's less superficial than the shallow approach but also less intrinsically engaged than the deep approach. In a related inquiry, Paul Pintrich and others characterized many students as having a performance orientation rather than a mastery orientation, striving to look good rather than genuinely to do well.
4 Dweck illustrates this nicely by characterizing some of the very different ways in which teachers respond when students have difficulty. For instance, suppose when the teacher calls upon Johnny for his solution to math problem number seven, it turns out that Johnny is having a lot of trouble. The teacher might say, "Okay, well good try. Math is difficult! Let's see who else might have an idea." Or the teacher might say, "Okay, so you've taken the first step there. What do you think a good next step might be? " These two responses send very different messages. The first tells Johnny that the math may well be beyond him, whereas the second says take it a step at a time and see what you can figure out. The second encourages Johnny to get in the driver's seat and drive!

The Driver's View 做自主型驾驶员
1 I have always been impressed by the following concise account from a fourth grader. Some colleagues collected this a number of years ago as part of our research: First I would ask myself: What is it? Then, why do we need it? How does it work or how does it happen? If, for example, I can't understand a word, I read the title and think about what the title means. Then I would read the sentence before it and after it twice. Next I would read that sentence and replace the word with a word that might fit in its place.
2 This was one savvy learner! Her confident tone reminds us that playing the game of learning well is as much a matter of attitude as skill. Imagine an educational environment where most learners had repertoires and mindsets in this spirit!
3 In a broad and well-known view of fostering learning called cognitive apprenticeship, Allen Collins, John Seely Brown, and Susan E. Newman characterize how students can be drawn into deep and self-regulated engagement in learning. Modeling, coaching, and scaffolding are three of the key ingredients, as teachers model strategic practices, coach students in taking them on, and "scaffold," providing support and gradually withdrawing it to cultivate students' self-management, as discussed in Chapter 5. Another practice in similar spirit involves students keeping learning logs, where they reflect upon their own learning.
4 Proactive question asking is a further characteristic of autonomous learners. Marlene Scardamalia and Carl Bereiter reported youngsters' remarkable capacity to ask deep, far-ranging questions if only they were encouraged to do so. Indeed, their questions were better for topics they had not yet studied than for topics they had, presumably because the formal instruction had narrowed their sense of the theme. Classroom cultures that encourage broad questioning surely develop students who are broad questioners.
5 The self-managed learner seeks a sense of the whole game even when it isn't provided. Learners proactive in such ways are reaching for the whole game, not just waiting for it to be put before nor settling for elementitis and aboutitis. Teachers who sometimes put learners in the driver's seat and encourage them to explore and define "the game" are helping learners to become proactive.
6 A good mix of counsel, encouragement, and elbow room means that learners can find their own ways into the game and further along in the game. This does not call for absolute freedom, but rather a measured latitude that supports as much as it frees, guides as much as it permits, shapes as much as it allows.
7 The reality is that when we step down off the platform with degrees in hand, most of what we need to learn still lies ahead of us. This includes not only areas of academic knowledge but also understanding in professional realms, interpersonal dimensions of life, encounters with the ideas and arts of other cultures, and so on.
8 Not only that, but exactly what it is we as individuals might eventually need to know is unknown. For one thing, much of it is likely to be very different from person to person. For another, in our rapidly changing world, nobody or hardly anybody knows yet what in a decade or two many of us will need to know. Some of the games that will be worth learning have not even been invented. This is why the last principle of learning by wholes is perhaps the most important: learn the game of learning.
Wonder of Learning:Learn the Game of Learning (章末:关于学习的几个想知道)
I wonder how I can foster learning the game of learning. Most broadly, I had better avoid the "passenger effect" and capitalize on the "driver effect"; learners are not likely to learn the game of learning unless they often get behind the wheel and exercise some self-direction.
I wonder what to encourage toward a driver-seat culture. I could foster patterns of interaction that allow learners significant autonomy and choice, promoting reflection and elf-management.
I wonder how to guard against a passenger-seat culture. I could try to dodge some typical hazards: a shallow rather than a deep approach to learning, an either-you-get-it-or-you-don't mindset, expectations that learning is a matter of acceptance, compliance, orderliness, and pursuit of nothing but conventional mastery and good grades.
I wonder just what needs to be learned to learn the game of learning. Here I might turn to the seven principles of learning by wholes, which provide a broad framework for students' self-management of learning, not just for my management of teaching. Besides that, there are many specific skills I could help students pick up: good reading practices, time management, problem-solving strategies, and so on.
I wonder how to find room for all that. With so much for me to manage, what would "driver education" be like? Either a standalone or infused approach might work, but infused or a mix seems better when possible. I also want to bear in mind that strategies of good learning benefit from explicit attention, not just osmosis from a generally positive driver-seat culture. However, they won't thrive without a driver-seat culture around them.
I wonder whether learning the game of learning is worth the effort. And then I think: For long lives in a world of change, the game of learning could be the most important game to learn.

Afterword: The Future of Learning 后记:学习的未来
Learning Today for Tomorrow
1 Let me say it again: One never knows when one is going to get ambushed into learning something.
2 In general, learning by wholes aims to engage learners in a whole game now as a step toward larger more sophisticated games later.
3 Knowledge is woven in here and there from the past as needed....as well as revealed by the unfolding experience.
4 In general, learning by wholes invites learners to bring to the game what they already know from general experience of immediately previous instruction, but to discover new skills knowledge, and insights through the game itself.
5 In general, a whole game generates dilemmas about what to do next, dilemmas that learners can pursue and strive to resolve, expanding their repertoire.
6 Considerable learning occurs automatically...extended by knowledge teased out through underscoring, reflection, and targeted rehearsal.
7 In general, the principles of learning by wholes invite strategic reflection before, during, and after to harvest the significance for the future.
7 Learners are expected to weave knowledge in from the chapter they have just read as well as from earlier learning, but the exercises themselves are designed almost entirely to practice the knowledge already presented, with very little new knowledge revealed as part of the process.
8 So this is what learning by wholes is all about. Learning by wholes aims squarely at learning from the lively now. Its goal is to build learning out of endeavors experienced as immediately meaningful and worthwhile--junior versions of the whole game that build toward more sophisticated versions. Its commitment is to leverage features of good naturalistic learning. Its method is to systematize important features of such learning through the seven principles. Its credo says that good learning is learning from a richly experienced today with tomorrow in view.
Teaching Today for Tomorrow
1 We can never stoke everyone's enthusiasm; it's naive to think that we can, but there is nothing more disenchanting for teachers than learners who don't care and would much rather be doing something else.
2 One more principle will make life easier from the first: Learn from the team. Here I don't mean the students' learning but our own learning from others in the setting---other teachers, mentors, consultants, whomever. If you can establish a reading group, by all means do so. If you can establish a regular meeting of a few colleagues to look thoughtfully at student work and discuss it, by all means do so. If you can set up a simple pattern of observing in one another's classes, by all means do so. Learning by wholes, like any other approach to educating, is much easier to tackle together than alone.
3 A final point, perhaps the oddest one: Do not read this book too carefully. By all means look through it, but if you discover ideas that seem provocative, try something soon. As urged in the Introduction, you'll find these pages much more useful if you make your first pass the basis for attempting a few simple things, your own personalized junior version. Then look back, and you'll find some further ideas that speak to needs you did not ever know you had.
4 And well, yes, I'm sure you will also encounter some challenges of practice with nary a helpful word in the whole book. When do we ever get it all right? My aspiration is not to have gotten it all right but to have gotten it mostly helpful, and I hope you find it that way.

Tomorrow's Knowledge 明天的知识
1In a way, the problem of content is simple: Teach today what learners will need to understand and act on tomorrow. Unfortunately, both as individuals living our personal lives and in a large social sense we only know roughly from trends and guesses what tomorrow will be like. Tomorrow is a moving target.
2 Even so, we can explore what might help us hit the target. In "Five minds for the Future," Howard Gardner identifies five fundamental ways to engage emerging challenges, five "minds" metaphorically speaking and urges that education pay more attention to their development.
3 The discipline mind refers to disciplinary knowledge and thinking, the synthesizing mind to assembling diverse knowledge into insightful and useful syntheses, the creative mind to truly novel insights and products, the respectful minds to respecting others near and far, and the ethical mind to a fundamentally ethical stance on challenging issues and relationships. With these five in full play, Gardner argues, people would be much better prepared to face the intricacies of the next decades.
4 Laser intelligence looks deep, as in fine-grained work within a discipline. Searchlight intelligence ranges broadly across multiple disciplines and perspectives to try to put things together. We need them both!
5 Formal education would become not just a tide that rises at the beginning of one's life and then recedes but instead a recurrent cycle.
6 The big message: Learning to learn and understandings of wide scope are at a premium.
7 Recognition of the continuous challenge of learning in our lively globalized culture is widespread, but is is rarely so frank as to look ignorance squarely in the face.
8 Founded by medical doctor Marlys Witte in the mid-1980s, it makes one of its basic tools and "ignorance map" designed to acknowledge and articulate not what we know but what we don't know.
Known unknowns are all the things you know you don't know;
Unknown unknowns are all the things you don't know that you don't know.
Errors are all the things you think you know but don't.
Unknowns knowns are all the things you don't know you know.
Taboos are dangerous, polluting, or forbidden knowledge.
And finally, denials are all the things too painful to know, so you don't.
9 We should think of the multiple fronts of learning that invite or may soon invite attention in terms not just of educating for the known but educating for the unknown.

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