十二 29


摘抄的英文句子过五百了,抽空重读了下,有的已经看不懂:(,顺便再挑了些更喜欢的:
1.Everyone's heart is a piece of sea, shining bottomless blue.
2.I always in the deepest despair, meet the most beautiful surprise.
3.Quotation is the highest compliment you can pay an author.
4.A reader lives a thousand lives before he dies… The man who never reads lives only one.
5.I always knew looking back on my tears would bring me laughter, but I never knew looking back on my laughter would make me cry.
6.When you want knowledge as you have just wanted air, then you will have knowledge.
7.There is no garden without its weeds.
8.Remember: The person who speaks two languages is worth two.
9.But all sunshine without shade all pleasure without pain is not life at all.
10.We read the world wrong and say it deceives us.
11.Do not argue with an idiot. He will drag you down to his level and beat you with experience.
12.To teach is to learn twice.
13.Pain is inevitable Suffering is optional
14.We fear loss more than we value gain.
15.The soul would have no rainbow if the eyes had no tears.
16.Never let success get to your head. And never let failure get to your heart.
17.If you tell the truth, it becomes a part of your past. If you lie, it becomes a part of your future.
18.Every story has an end. But in life, every ending is just a new beginning.
19.If you want to go fast, go alone. If you want to go far, go together.
20.No matter how many mistakes you have made or how slow you have progressed, you are definitely way ahead of everyone who hasn’t started trying.
21.A ship in port is safe, but that’s not what ships are built for.
22.Life is like freshly fallen snow. Be careful where you walk, because every step will show.
23.The human hand is incapable of making a perfect copy.
24.Every one is a moon and has a dark side, which he never show to anybody.
25.Like sunlight, sunset, we appear we disappear, we are so important to some, but we are just passing through.
26.Question is a journey for student and teacher to quest together.
27.Don’t worry about doing research, Just search.
28.Life is like a hot bath. It feels good while you're in it, but the longer you stay, the more wrinkled you get.
29.I am not what has happened to me, I am what I choose to become.
30.If wrinkles must be written upon our brows, the only thing you can do is not letting them written upon the heart.
31.When the going gets tough, The tough get going.
32.Today is the first day for the rest of your life.
33.Chemistry is physics without though, Mathematics is physics without purpose.
34.Dance as if no one is watching, work as if never need money, Love as if never been hurt.
35.Many leaves, One tree.
36.Today, at the edge of our hope, at the end of our time, we have chosen not only to believe in ourselves, but in each other.
37.The teacher is not the sage one the stage, but a guide on side.
38.Everything that needs to be said has already been said. But since no one was listening, everything must be said again.
39.All flowers are not in one garland.
40.When I get busy I get stupid.
41.Always be reading a book is a lens to see the world through.
42.The land did not move, but moved. The sea was not still, yet was still.
43.The best way to get approval is not need it.
44.The task of education is not to teach subject, it is to teach students.No school is better than it’s teacher.
45.I’m a slow walker, But I never walk backwards.
46.When one door of happiness closes, another opens; but often we look so long at the closed door that we do no see the one which has been opened for us.
47.Too many people overvalue what they are not and undervalue what they are.
48.Happiness isn’t getting all you want, It’s enjoying all you have.
49.I always like walking in the rain, So no one can see me crying.
50.Don't get it right, just get it written.
51.Collect moments not things.
52.The size of a man may be measured by the size of the things that make him angry.
53.To travel hopefully is better thing than to arrive.
54.It's not the hours you put in your work that counts, it's the work you put in the hours.
55.The greatest risk in life is to risk nothing.
56.In French, Amateurs means “lover”.
57.Man cannot discover new oceans unless he has the courage to lose sight of the shore.
58.Use your smile to change the world. Don’t let the world change your smile.
59.Reason why we have two ears and only one mouth is that we may listen the more and talk the less.
60.It takes courage to follow your mind. But it takes everything to follow your heart.
61.Life is not about waiting for the storm pass. It’s about learning to dance in the rain.
62.God give answers in three ways: He say yes and give you what you want. He say no and gives you something better. He says wait and gives you the best.
63.You laugh at me for being different, but I laugh at you for being the same.
64.An ounce of action is worth a ton of theory.
65.Pain makes you stronger. Tears make you braver. Heartbreak makes you wise. So, thanks the past for a better future.
66.Whenever two people meet, there are really six people present. There is each man as he sees himself, each man as the other person sees him, and each man as he really is.
67.Fate as hand palm, no matter how tortuous, always in their own hands.
68.Anybody can sympathize with the sufferings of a friend, but it requires a very fine nature to sympathize with a friend's success.
69.It's in the nature of the human being to face challenges. We're required to do these things just as salmon swim upstream.
70.Not teaching for perfect, but learning only for improvement.
71.Life is like riding a bicycle. To keep your balance you must keep moving.
72.Don’t reinvent the wheel.
73.I’m not perfect Never have been Never will be
74.Love all trust few do wrong to none
75.We make a living by what we get, but we make a life by what we give.
76.A life with love will have some thorns, but a life without love will have no roses.
77.When people realize they being listened to , they tell you things.
78.To agree without understanding is inane. To disagree without understanding is impudent.
79.If they throw stones at you, don’t throw back, use them to build your own foundation in stead.
80.You don’t became what you want, you became what you believe.
81.Victory isn’t defined by wins or losses. It is defined by effort. If you can truthfully say:I did the best I would. I gave everything I had. Then you’re a winner.
82.We can't help everyone, but everyone can help someone.
83.Talent is God given. Be humble. Fame is man-given. Be grateful. Conceit is self-given. Be careful.
84.My last salutation are to them who knew me imperfect and loved me.
85.Pain past is pleasure.
86.Better keep yourself clean and bright; you are the window through which you must see the world.
87.Smoke boasts to the sky, and Ashes to the earth, that they are brothers to the fire.
88.We don’t make movies to make money, we make money to make more movies.

24

《静悄悄的革命》---课堂改变,学校就会改变 佐藤学著,李季湄译


在教室里,与对物对人的冷漠作斗争的实践,应成为以“学”为中心的教学的中心课题。
不是听学生发言的内容,而是听其发言中所包含的心情、想法,与他们心心相印。应当追求的不是“发言热闹的教室”,而是“用心地相互倾听的教室”。
要创造以“学”为中心的教学的话,既不是追求“自学自习”,也不是让教室解体为零零散散的个体。(让学习有个体的态度,也不忘集体的温度。让助学发热,让自学发光。)(关于collegiality,李老师翻译成“合作性同事”,我更喜欢陈老师的用词“同僚性”。

日本学校一个世纪以上的划一性与效率化。(这种状况不只是中国大陆在持续)
现在正在进行的学校的“静悄悄的革命”则是从一个个教室里萌发出来的,是根植于下层的民主主义的、以学校和社区为基地而进行的革命,是支持每个学生的多元化个性的革命,是促进教师的自主性和创造性的革命。
一个多世纪以来,日本文字中“勉强”这个词一直被广泛地用来表示“学习”之意。“日语中把‘学习’说成‘勉强’,我感到很惊奇。”
(很好奇勉强在日语的细节,不本意,硬要)

“看自己以前的教学录像时感到痛苦!要不喝酒的话都看不下去。”(这种感觉我也有,忘了把自己灌醉,几乎是半捂着眼近乎捏着鼻子看完)
没有哪一个教室和其他教室飘溢着完全相同的气息,有着完全相同的问题。
忽略教室的多样性和在其中发生的事情的固有性,仅一般性地议论教学是非常空洞而没有什么意义的。

所谓“主体性”神话却是将学生与教师的互动、与教材以及学习环境等割裂开来,让教育成为仅仅针对学生的需要、愿望和态度等学生自身的性格取向进行的神话,成为把学习理想化为只由学生内部的“主体性”来实现的神话。
这样的“主体性”难道不是丧失了其应有的从属关系而成为悬在半空中的“主体”吗?!
“主体性”神话是在将教学中的“自学自习”理想化…学生自立、自律的学习必须在与教师的互动中,在与教材、教室中的学生以及学习环境的关系中来加以认识。
教学必须建立在还原学生的“主体性”、克服“主体性”神话的基础上。
教学中,价值最高的也许恰恰是这种模糊的多义的意见。尊重这些模糊的多义的意见,能够建立起教室里对个性多样化的意识,从而在相互的交流中,能使每个人的认识达到更加丰富、深刻的程度。
对清楚、明确的要求深信不疑的教师是不可能理解学生那些踌躇不定的、没有把握的发言的价值的,是不可能理解那些孕育着微妙的、不确定的、模糊暧昧的思考、矛盾、冲突的复杂情感的价值的。
在“润泽的教室”里,教师和学生都不受“主体性”神话的约束,大家安心地、轻松自如地构筑着人与人之间的关系,构筑着一种基本的信赖关系……润泽的教室是主体性神话的对立面。
在教室的交流中,倾听远比发言更重要。
与其建议善于倾听的同学“更加积极地发言吧”,不如对那些不多思考就草率发言的学生“更加注意仔细倾听吧”。
“被动的能动性”正是我所追求的教和学的形态。

正因为动态的学习过程就是小小的差异相互反响激荡的过程,因此学习中需要十分谦虚和密切的关注。自古以来,人们就认为“慎思、善思、明察”在学习中起着决定性的作用。古今的一切文献中,言及学习都追求者一“慎学”的本质,而“自主性”、“主体性”或“努力”、“欲求”等并不是学习的本质。
在学习能够丰富地展开的教室里,教室在向学生讲话时,不仅能意识到自己的言语,选择合适的言语,还能有意识地专注地倾听学生的言语,其“讲述”的行为同时也就是“倾听”的行为。
教室里的是一个一个的学生,而不是铁板一块的学生群体。

Learning这一动名词没有表现出动态的感觉,而决定用“学”这个具有动感的词来表现。
在学校里的学习既不是学生一个人一个人的孤立的活动,也不是没有教师的介入而进行的活动。它是在教室的介入下,学生自立地、合作地进行的活动。这才是学校中“学习”的本质。

“學”的上部,中间的两个✘表示“交往”,上面的✘表示祖先的灵,也就是和文化的遗产的交往,下面的✘表示学生之间的交往的样子。而包着✘的两侧,形为大人的手,意味着大人千方百计地向儿童的交往伸出双手,或者说,表示大人想尽办法支持学生在交往中成长。
对事、对物、对人的冷漠态度并不仅仅只是学生的问题,可以说这是现代人的一种深刻的病理现象。
一是与每个学生应对的活动,tailoring,服装的裁剪制作(量体裁衣)。
一是与学生各种各样的想法、认识相互激荡回响的活动,“交响乐团”。

交往有四:只有一方讲话的“单向交往”、相互交谈的“双向交往”‘被拒绝被阻挡的“反向交往”、思路各异的“异向交往”。
学校里只要有一个教师不上公开课,要取得成功都是困难的。
解除防御心态。研讨的焦点应针对授课中的“困难”和“乐趣”所在,大家共同来分享。
在学生以自然的轻声细语来交谈的教室环境里,更能培育自立、合作的学习者。

教师们通常对于别人批评自己的工作是极度反感的,然而指责起别人的工作来却言辞有加。这样的陋习使他们本身的学习态度出现根本性的欠缺。既然是参观别人的学校,就应该虚心地从那所学校的实情和教学实况中学点东西回来。

所谓课程,一言以蔽之就是“学习的经验”。Curriculum也有“履历书”的意思,所以课程也是学习的轨迹、履历。
创造课程并不是制定“目标”或“计划”一览表,而是要实际创造学习的经验。课程并不是在办公室里或是教研室里创造出来的,而是在教室里一天天地慢慢创造出来的。
课程的独立性和个性也就不过是每天都在追求的教学与学习的独立性与个性而已。(我们创建了学的课程,双关,学生参与创造的学习经验分享课程。)
把“教的课程”组织得十分细致、周密、有计划,而与此相反“学的课程”的设计却十分薄弱。
学习的三位一体是,学习是通过创造世界(认知的实践)、人际交往(交往的实践)和自我完善(自我内在的实践)这三种对话性实践而完成的。

学科学习改革的中心课题,简而言之,就是实现从“勉强”到“学习”的转换。迄今为止的学校教育都受应试教育文化的支配,以高效率地学好规定的教科书内容、应付考试为目的。“勉强”就是这样的活动:学生不需要与任何事情接触,不必与任何人或物对话,单单靠坐在教室里,一味地开动大脑细胞就可以了。
把“勉强”说成“偏重知识”是不对的,原因在于,失去了与对象、经验的联系,失去了来龙去脉,其知识便没有了意义和联系,就不称其为知识了,而将之称为“信息”,具有意义结构的“经验”被置换成了仅是意味着个人自身活动的“体验”。

把“勉强”转换成“学习”的首要课题是组织“媒介化的活动”。学习是和人、物、工具以及素材接触,进行“媒介化的活动”而实现的。
把“勉强”转换成“学习”的第二个课题是实现“合作”(分组活动)。勉强是个人的活动,而学习则是合作的活动。在“学习”的文化中,追求“互惠学习”reciprocal learning,积极接受他人的多种意见和认识,并毫无保留地告知自己的想法的相互学习。学习是通过“个体与个体的切磋”这种“合作”的方式来实现的。

所谓共同体的学校,是指这样的学校里不仅学师生们相互学习、成长,作为教育专家的教师也相互学习、提高,家长和市民也参加学习、共同发展。
量体裁衣(培养=应对每个个体);交响乐演奏(相互影响=个体与个体的交融)
21世纪的学校是“学习共同体”的学校。
学习是在表现学习、与同伴共享学习的过程中,对其不断反思的一种活动。
“勉强”是以不断地以结束作为标志来划分、区别学校中学习的进程的,而“学习”却是不断地准备新的开始,如“没有终结的故事”一样。
学生需要的是“能从容平和地、安心地学习的学校”,而不是“一切都明确规定、热热闹闹的学校。”