十二 21


(鉴于该书的封面太丧,找了张替代。江苏凤凰文艺出版社)(上图[?])
《费曼学习法》---用输出倒逼输入(我想这本书最大的受益人是尹红心和李伟两位作者,不管质量怎么样,应该是践行了“输出倒逼输入”。)(这本书,随便几段话就构成一章哈哈哈,比如第19张一共三面,每一面还空着大半。)
(留意了一下,2021年3月第一版,8月已经第8次印刷,看来选题很好。)(读一本内陆作者的书比逼着我看一部大陆片还要难,但为了更好了解费曼,还是买来书看下去。)(上次看过内陆人写的的《物理学之美》,书是一般般,但是一个很要的线索,趁机检索了一些补充了一些)(看作者介绍,解放军外国语学员毕业的,焦作师范专科学校的教师,书中常用股票或经济等理财的例子,也不知是爱好还是拼凑,总觉得不专业的范例呢。)(想起攀枝花学院...)(是谁曾嘲笑过那个奴隶想从知识上得到一个金币...)
检测学习效果的重要途径,是有能力把它传播给另一个人。
(有学生问我,费曼获得过诺贝尔奖吗?当然,他似乎被提名过几十次吧。)
学了那么多,一落地就“见光死”,简直成了一个书呆子。
(书中应该是编撰了不少费曼的话,或是翻译的曲解。)
费曼学习法的核心是---当你准备学习一门新知识时,必须站在传授者的立场,假设自己要向别人讲解这门知识。那么你一定要用最简洁、清晰和易于理解的语言表达出来...

1、确立你要学习的目标。
2、理解你要学习的对象。
3、以教代学,用输出代替输入。
4、进行回顾和反思。
5、实现知识的简化和吸收。
学习和应用是互为一体的,无法对外输出的学习就不能称为学习。
越熟悉的概念,大脑越喜欢。当大脑长时间习惯于这种学习模式,对新知识的创造力就会受到抑制。解决这个问题的最好方法就是学会输出,激励我们的大脑更多地使用第二种模式---在不同的概念之间强行建立联系,也是大脑的特长。
知识的输出越多,我们队陌生事物的联想就越丰富,学习的创造性就越强,最终成功地突破旧知识的框架,得出有价值的新知识。
提高学习的能力,比学到一门知识更重要。
费曼认为,好的学习方法能够为一个人创造宏大的事业和对世界犀利的理解力。
学习,究其根本是思维方式的比拼,不是知识存储的较量,也不是学位的竞争。
1968年,美国社会学家罗伯特·莫顿提“马太效应”(Matthew effect),以概括一种社会心理现象:“相对于那些不知名的研究者,声名显赫的科学家通常得到更多的声望...”其名称来自于《马太福音》,“凡有的,还要加给他,叫他有余;凡没有的,连他所有的也要夺去。”类似的有道德经“天之道,损有余而补不足。人之道,则不然,损不足以奉有余”。
一次成功的输出也会同时增强输入的能力,从而使得下一次输出的成功可能性更大。
主动学习比以往任何时候都更加重要。

学习不再是被动服从和由功利驱动的“输入”,而是我们自觉甚至开心地实施有意识的主动学习,也就是以“输出”为载体的“有选择的输入”。
(对老师来说,只有输入才能更好的输出,教师的读书很重要。而对学生呢,只有输出,才知道需要很好的输入。教学相长大概也是这个道理,关于教和学的关系,我想过很多遍,也说过很多次。)
本杰明·布鲁姆“学习的最大动力,是对学习材料的兴趣。”
我们的目标定立得高大上,让人热血沸腾,具体的规划却一塌糊涂,看起来莫名其妙...
聪明的学习者善于反问和反省,愚蠢的学习者则喜欢自我感动,将一个错误的目标偏执地坚持到底。

SMART:
具体的 Specific---目标必须清晰和可以形容。
可衡量的 Measurable---目标必须量化和能够评估。
可执行的 Actionable---目标必须在能力范围内。
实际的 Relevant/Realistic/Rewarding---目标必须有积极的意义。
有时间限制的 Time-bound---目标必须有时间的期限。
学习不只是为了记住什么,而是我们通过学习建立自己行之有效的思维框架,并将知识运用到实践中,解决生活和工作中的实际问题。
费曼认为,如果一个人不能有意愿和彻底地、深入地理解自己的学习对象,不知道自己究竟在学习什么,对于知识的印象模糊空洞,在学习上付出再多的努力也不可能有好的收获。
学习不再是人自己的事,是人和机器的竞赛。人们开始担心未来会不会被人工智能全面替代。(计算速度和存储上,机器早就远超人类,在学习时长上更是不断电不分白天和黑夜...)(学习的事关人类)

@qiusir:上厕所的功夫,自行对照了一下费曼的十条建议:
1-Read every day(读书时也整理笔记)
2-Spend time with nature(也就早饭后散个步,偶尔河边走走)
3-Ask questions(多是对学生明知故问)
4-Never stop learning(学习的迫切性还不够)
5-Don't pay attention to what others think of you(越来越接近这一点)
6-Do what interests you the most(习惯的状态中难说擅长什么)
7-Study hard(没放弃提高但和努力有距离)
8-Teach others what you know(这是我的工作)
9-Make mistakes and learn(主要是帮助学生做到这一点)
10-It's Okay to not know things!(对自己的无知越发坦然了)
喜欢推上这个回复:
1. Be kind to yourself.
2. Be a life long learner.
3. It's okay to fail.
4. Never compromise on what you love.
5. Never lose your curiosity.
6. Work hard.
7. Pay attention, it's rare.
8. Do what makes your heart sings.
9. It's important to know who you are.
10. Love yourself.
@aiusir:我们常把学校称为母校,我们常把校园当成家。这是因为在这里,我们见了自己,见了天地,见了众生。升学的我们要更大的天地和为了更广的众生。学生不能放飞自我如何能见更宽广的天体,如果老师不曾放飞自我如何能见识过天地...
费曼说,我们要善于通过学习来“懂得学习”,要掌握这种能力,就必须在学习中建立自己的思维框架。
从长远来看,阅读和记忆并不是一场数量的比赛。我们所学知识的数量想来都是一个伪命题。
当你能从较少的知识中也能获取比他人更多的有益信息时,你对知识的理解和运用能力一定是更加优秀的。
知识在他们脑中是种薛定谔(猫)的状态,好像学通了,又好像还差很多。在时间的侵蚀下,学到的知识一点一滴、悄悄地流失...
仅凭印象复述、复述中提出问题、复述中加入自己的观点。
“以教代学”是费曼学习法的核心。费曼说,“如果你不能向其他人简单地解释一件事,那么你就还没有真正弄懂它。”
(对于书中提到女儿儿子清华北大的农民的事存疑。“我这人没什么文化,其实也没啥绝招——我只不过是让孩子教我罢了!”)
(多数时候,我们的学习不过是在朗读一页又一页的ppt...费曼那个年代powerpoint应该没发布呢吧?是不是幻灯片更合适,而且很怀疑费曼说过类似的话。)
记忆是过去的经验在人大脑中的反映,它不但是神经活动,还是一种复杂的心理活动。
(“题还不会,但分得到了!你说神奇不神奇。”我勒个去,这竟然是我校创新班课堂的节录...很现实也很恐怖)
费曼认为,以教代学的输出方式属于主动学习,是拒绝等待着被知识垂幸而去主动地征服,是不想被知识选择而去为知识建立一个具有自己标准的过滤器。
高质量的主动学习才能改变命运。
费曼“我发现,在同一条起跑线上,主动学习的人在10年后会超出被动学习的人至少两个社会阶层。”(如此的鸡汤文字,如果是费曼说的,那应该是他的污点了哈哈哈)
第一次复述是把自己当做倾听者,第二次复述是进入一个真实的传授知识的场景,向别人甚至更多人阐述你对某项知识的看法。
费曼学习法主张“以教代学”的根本原因,因为这样做能最大限度地加快学习的速度,提升学习的效能。
没有灵魂的知识就像路边枯萎的树叶,看似脉络分明,却早已失去生命。
只有在记忆的同时还能为知识刻上自己的印记,学习才拥有了灵魂,知识也具备了新的活力。
(叔叔一大早发短信过来,祝我节日快乐,说这是他最喜欢的节气,我说也是,昨天过了最长的夜。叔叔不忘叮嘱我吃饺子,难怪食堂早餐就有了饺子,中午又吃了几个。下午10班上课,黑板上写着“冬至不端饺子碗,冻掉下巴没人管”。)
知识不是单向的一个方向传授知识,它是一个双向的过程。
“盲维”是我们没看到的角落,也是我们未想到的地方。
哈佛商学院的一项统计表明,有68%的人下功夫去学一门知识却仍然不得其门而入,原因是他的知识储备还不足以理解这个知识,而不是知识本身的问题。
人与人之间的知识差距主要取决于对知识的反思、总结和升华的能力。
“证据太苍白了,就好像一只苍蝇飞过婴儿的耳边,婴儿却以为那是一个高级玩具...”
“最好的学习就是我们能从一个问题里找到新的问题,你不喜欢、不欣赏、不认可的东西,那才是知识这顶皇冠上的宝石。如果你憎恶争议,或者没有挑刺的习惯,就如同你扔掉了这颗宝石,只戴着一顶漂亮但毫无价值的帽子。”
知识是动态变化的,一方面我们不断地解构它,理解它,另一方面也通过论证、怀疑和反思更新它的内容,使知识保持常新,尽可能地真实而客观。
“好比一条从鱼缸放出来的鱼却在大海里无穷无尽的食物之中饿死。可见简单的事情真做起来也不易...”
如身使臂,如臂使指
“知识不仅是文明的记忆,也不仅是未来的旗帜,它还是一种思维结构。当你从思维结构角度看待知识时,就要意识到,学习的过程其实就是对我们自己思维的变革,它由聪明的方式,也有愚蠢的方式。”
知识的原理比知识本身对我们更有价值。能够简化知识体系,可以使学习既简单又直接。
(一直尊重阅读之人,对书也一直有膜拜之感,而对自己而言,四十多岁以后的读书才算是开始...)
我们的口才不仅源于演讲的技巧,更源于对人性的认知。
知识并非只是拿来搬开脚下的石头,或让你明白过去,屙屎帮你读懂未来。
热情是造成学生的学习结果最大差异的因素。
“有时候你得到的知识根本称不上知识,充其量只是一堆信息。”
费曼想来不主张追求数量的“贪多求全”的学习,他曾经嘲讽地说,“如果有人愿意拿自己有限的生命去追逐无限的知识,并且还为此感动,那他纯粹就是一个无知的妄人。
主动的学习远比被动的学习重要;系统的学习远比碎片式的学习重要;向内的学习远比向外的学习重要;专业的学习远比跨界的学习重要。

学习金字塔是美国缅因州的国家训练实验室研究成果,由学习专家爱德加·戴尔(Edgar Dale)1946年提出。它用数字形式形象地呈现了:采用不同的学习方式,学习者在两周以后还能记住的内容(平均学习保持率)有多少。
从上往下列出了:听大课、阅读、多媒体、现场示范、讨论、践行、教别人,这7种学习方式,学习效率也依次从5%递增到90%。


喜欢这张图[?]的配色,简单翻译了一下贴在这里。
[?]《如何高效学习》Scott Young (提到费曼的技巧)

费曼曾经指出[?],学习物理学有五个方面的理由。简单说来:
一是为了学会怎样动手做测量和计算,以及在各方面的应用;
二是培养科学家,他们不仅致力于工业的发展,而且贡献于人类知识的进步;
三是认识自然界的美妙,感受世界的稳定性和实在性;
四是学习怎样由未知到已知、科学的求知方法;
五是通过尝试和纠错,学会一种有普遍意义的自由探索的创造精神。

P.S.冬至这天,留言里试着整理一下收集的费曼推上(好奇是谁在维护,费曼的养女?)的只言片语。等读完费曼语录,再整理一下。

On this day..

75 Responses to “《费曼学习法》”

  1. qiusir Says:

    Five Productivity FEYNMAN strategies:
    • See every problem as an opportunity.
    • Understanding is more important than memorization.
    • Embrace uncertanties and doubts.
    • Think constantly and Focus deeply.
    • Learn from your mistakes and start over again

  2. qiusir Says:

    A truer description would have said that Feynman was all genius and all buffoon. The deep thinking and the joyful clowning were not separate parts of a split personality… He was thinking and clowning simultaneously.
    — Freeman Dyson, 1988 remark on Feynman.
    戴森对费曼的这段评价,让人想起光的波粒二象性来。

  3. qiusir Says:

    > Pick a topic you want to understand and start studying it
    > Pretend to teach the topic to a classroom or a child or someone who is unfamiliar with the topic
    > Go back to the resource material when you get stuck
    > Simplify and Organize

  4. qiusir Says:

    Five great signs of intelligence:
    • You're not afraid or ashamed to find errors in your understanding of things.
    • You take mistakes as lessons.
    • You don't get offended with accepting the facts.
    • You are highly adaptable and very curious.
    • You know what you don't know.

  5. qiusir Says:

    Knowledge is having the right answers.
    Intelligence is asking the right questions.
    Wisdom is knowing when to ask the right questions.

  6. qiusir Says:

    Be humble. Be teachable. The universe is bigger than your view of the universe. There's always room for a new idea. Humility is necessary for growth.

  7. qiusir Says:

    • Do what interests you the most.
    • Spend time with nature.
    • Ask questions.
    • Never stop learning.
    • Don't pay attention to what others think of you.
    • Read everyday.
    • Study hard.
    • Teach others what you know.
    • Make mistakes and learn.
    • It's Okay to not know things!

  8. qiusir Says:

    The world is filled with educated fools and uneducated genuises.

  9. qiusir Says:

    Why is Failure important?
    • Failure is an incredible learning experience.
    • It teaches you humility and growth.
    • It is the first step to understanding.
    • It makes you realize the importance of success.
    • It gives you a sense of direction.
    • It gets rid of Fear.

  10. qiusir Says:

    Don't just teach your students to memorize and repeat information
    > Teach them to question what they read, what they study and why.
    > Teach them to doubt.
    > Teach them to think.
    > Teach them how to learn from their mistakes.
    > Teach them how to teach others.

  11. qiusir Says:

    Teach your children early what you learned late.

  12. qiusir Says:

    The ultimate purpose of education is to change an empty mind into an open one.
    If you wanna be a good teacher, teach open-mindedness, teach enthusiasm, inquisitiveness, heuristics, and values.

  13. qiusir Says:

    Don't regret anything in life. If it's good, it's wonderful. If it's bad, it's experience!
    When you win, you win. When you lose, you learn.

  14. qiusir Says:

    The goal of teaching should not be to help the students learn how to memorize and spit out information under academic pressure.

    The purpose of teaching is to inspire the desire for learning in them and make them able to think, understand, and question.

  15. qiusir Says:

    The reason why students cheat in exams is because we value their grades more than they value their learning.

  16. qiusir Says:

    People need to understand that comparision isn't motivation.

  17. qiusir Says:

    I'm smart enough to know that I'm dumb.

  18. qiusir Says:

    The ultimate test of your knowledge is your ability to convey it to another.

  19. qiusir Says:

    • Stupidity:
    You think you know everything, without questioning.
    • Intelligence:
    You question everything you think you know.

  20. qiusir Says:

    Education isn't about the ability to remember and repeat, in which people study to pass exams, and teach others to pass exams, but nobody knows anything.

    It is the ability to learn from experience, to think, solve problems, and use our knowledge to adapt to new situations.

  21. qiusir Says:

    Students don't need a perfect teacher. Students need a happy teacher, who's gonna make them excited to come to school and grow a love for learning.

  22. qiusir Says:

    It's Okay to say "I don't know!"

    There's no shame in that! The only shame is to pretend that we know everything.

  23. qiusir Says:

    Learning is underrated. Grades are overrated.

  24. qiusir Says:

    There's a huge difference between:
    • education and intelligence
    • knowledge and information
    • understanding and memorization
    • learning and studying
    • ignorance and stupidity

  25. qiusir Says:

    Knowledge is power. It doesn't matter how many resources you have. If you don't know how to use them, it will never be enough.

  26. qiusir Says:

    Life is not about being better than someone else. It's about being better than you used to be and discovering who you truly are.

  27. qiusir Says:

    Science:
    If you don't make mistakes, you're doing it wrong. If you don't correct those mistakes, you're doing it really wrong. If you can't accept that you're mistaken, you're not doing it at all.

  28. qiusir Says:

    School doesn’t test your intelligence, it tests your memory.

  29. qiusir Says:

    “Richard Feynman sometimes used to practice for five hours in an empty classroom before delivering his lecture. It's true that when passion and hard work combine, it's a masterpiece.”

  30. qiusir Says:

    Give children logical explanations, not magical ones.

  31. qiusir Says:

    You're under no obligation to remain the same person you were a year ago, a month ago, or even a day ago. You are here to create yourself, continuously.

  32. qiusir Says:

    • Read everyday.
    • Spend time with nature.
    • Ask questions.
    • Never stop learning.
    • Don't pay attention to what others think of you.
    • Do what interests you the most.
    • Study hard.
    • Teach others what you know.
    • Make mistakes and learn.
    • It's Okay to not know things!

  33. qiusir Says:

    Don't be impressed by money, followers, degrees, and titles. Be impressed by kindness, integrity, humility, and generosity.

  34. qiusir Says:

    Don’t use your energy to worry!
    Use your energy to believe, to create, to learn, to think, and to grow.

  35. qiusir Says:

    People must be educated enough to question and doubt anything from what they have been taught. But they are educated just enough to believe what they have been taught.
    The problem is not that people are uneducated, the greater problem is that they are wrongly educated.

  36. qiusir Says:

    The problem is not people being uneducated.
    The problem is that people are educated just enough to believe what they have been taught, and not educated enough to question anything from what they have been taught.

  37. qiusir Says:

    "Scientific knowledge is a body of statements of varying degrees of certainty -- some most unsure, some nearly sure, none absolutely certain."
    -- Richard Feynman

  38. qiusir Says:

    Stupidity is knowing the truth, seeing the truth but still believing the lies. And that is more infectious than any other disease.

  39. qiusir Says:

    You cannot get educated by this self-propagating system in which people study to pass exams, and teach others to pass exams, but nobody knows anything.

    You learn something by doing it yourself, by asking questions, by thinking, and by experimenting.

  40. qiusir Says:

    The best way to reinforce your knowledge of a subject is to share it.
    The best way to master something is to teach it to someone else.

  41. qiusir Says:

    1. See failure as a beginning.
    2. Never stop learning.
    3. Assume nothing, question everything.
    4. Teach others what you know.
    5. Analyze objectively.
    6. Practice humility.
    7. Respect constructive criticism.
    8. Take initiative.
    9. Give credit where it's due.
    10. Love what you do.

  42. qiusir Says:

    "Be yourself; everyone else is already taken."

    -- Oscar Wilde

  43. qiusir Says:

    Never confuse education with intelligence!
    Intelligence isn't the ability to remember and repeat, like they teach you in school. It is the ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use our knowledge to adapt to new situations.

  44. qiusir Says:

    Failure is an incredible learning experience.
    It teaches you humility. It teaches you to work harder. It is the first step to understanding.

  45. qiusir Says:

    Don't get frightened by not knowing things. I have approximate answers, and possible beliefs, and different degrees of certainty about different things, but I'm not absolutely sure of anything. There are many things I don't know anything about. It doesn't frighten me.

  46. qiusir Says:

    One of the biggest problems with the world is that fools are always so sure and certain about everything and intelligent people are so full of doubts and uncertainties.

  47. qiusir Says:

    Never confuse education with intelligence, you can have a PhD and still be an idiot.

  48. qiusir Says:

    Replacing 'Why is this happening to me?' with 'What is this trying to tell me?' is a game changer.

    Learn from your experiences!

  49. qiusir Says:

    How to do PHYSICS:

    Confusion = Opportunity

    • Indulge in the joy of discovery
    • Embrace uncertainty and doubt
    • See every problem as an opportunity
    • Be curious about everything
    • Love the details
    • THINK constantly
    • Focus deeply
    • Reject the "genius" myth

  50. qiusir Says:

    Being wrong isn't a bad thing like they teach you in school. It is an opportunity to learn something.

  51. qiusir Says:

    If you really want to do something, you'll find a way. If you don't, you'll find an excuse.

  52. qiusir Says:

    The best teachers are not the ones who provide you all the answers. They're the ones who get deeply excited by the questions they cannot answer, the ones who teach how to question and doubt the things you learn.

  53. qiusir Says:

    If you find science boring, you're learning it from a wrong teacher!

  54. qiusir Says:

    I have no responsibility to live up to what others expect of me. That's their mistake, not my failing.

  55. qiusir Says:

    FIVE Productivity FEYNMAN- strategies:
    • Stop trying to know-it-all.
    • Don't worry about what others are thinking.
    • Don't think about what you want to be, but what you want to do.
    • Have a sense of humor and talk honestly.
    • Teach others what you know.

  56. qiusir Says:

    Study hard what interests you the most in the most undisciplined, irreverent and original manner possible.

  57. qiusir Says:

    The more you teach, the better you learn. Teaching is a powerful tool to learning.

  58. qiusir Says:

    The stupider you are, the smarter you think you are, and vice versa.

  59. qiusir Says:

    We LEARN better by Teaching.

  60. qiusir Says:

    "Educating the mind without educating the heart is no education at all."
    - Aristotle

  61. qiusir Says:

    Fall in love with some activity, and do it! Nobody ever figures out what life is all about, and it doesn't matter. Explore the world. Nearly everything is really interesting if you go into it deeply enough.

  62. qiusir Says:

    There's a big difference between knowing the name of something and knowing something.

  63. qiusir Says:

    Students should be made to think like scientists, be open-minded, curious, and especially, to doubt.

  64. qiusir Says:

    The statements of science are not of what is true and what is not true, but statements of what is known with different degrees of certainty.

  65. qiusir Says:

    Science is like sex: sometimes something useful comes out, but that is not the reason we are doing it.

  66. qiusir Says:

    I was an ordinary person who studied hard. There's no miracle people!

  67. qiusir Says:

    We must be careful not to believe things simply because we want them to be true. No one can fool you as easily as you can fool yourself!

  68. qiusir Says:

    If you're doing an experiment, you should report everything that you think might make it invalid - not only what you think is right about it. Science teaches standard integrity and honesty!

  69. qiusir Says:

    I would rather have questions that can't be answered than answers that can't be questioned.

  70. qiusir Says:

    "When one teaches, two learn."
    - Robert Heinlein

  71. qiusir Says:

    The FEYNMAN method of learning:
    1) Choose a concept and study it quickly
    2) Teach it to someone, like a child, who is unfamiliar with the topic
    3) Revise to fill in the gaps
    4) Review and simplify
    (repeat step 2 and 4 until you can explain the concept in your own words)

  72. qiusir Says:

    The FEYNMAN Problem-Solving Algorithm:
    i) write down the problem;
    ii) think very hard;
    iii) write down the answer.

  73. qiusir Says:

    Not knowing is not failure. It's the first step to understanding.

  74. qiusir Says:

    Religion is a culture of faith; science is a culture of doubt.

  75. qiusir Says:

    Prof. Richard Feynman
    Teach your children that not knowing something is not a bad thing, it is an opportunity to learn something.
    Teach them that making mistake is not failure, it's the first step to understanding.