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我的2015年度计划:每月一本英文书。目前第12和13本同时进行,必然超额完成。更重要的是,设定目标读书--选书--充实感和成就感--读书习惯已养成。(第12本叫the power of habit).

本书来源于大师推荐。如果有人主动推荐书给你,要感恩。没人推荐的话就自己去找。信息爆炸的时代,我们需要的能力不是接收信息,而是从海量信息中甄选,鉴别,吸收,采用。微博上读到了好文章,就该留个心眼,他为什么会写的这么好,犀利的观点怎么形成的,他看了谁的书,他写了哪些书,我去哪里找。。。找书的过程本身就是探索的过程,连这个过程都没有,只等别人推荐,未免太被动。

以下是部分书摘和我的翻译

1.The tricky thing about this process, though, is that it’s not actually the stress itself that messes us up. It’s the body’s reaction to he stress.

2.The part of the brain most affected by early stress is the prefrontal cortex, which is critical in self-regulatory activities of all kinds, both emotional and cognitive. As a result, children who grow up in stressful environments generally find it harder to concentrate, harder to sit still, harder to rebound from disappointments, and harder to follow directions. And that has a direct effect on their performance in school.
早期压力对大脑主要影响的是前额叶皮层这部分,这部分掌管着情感和认知的自我调节能力。因此,成长于压力环境下的孩子往往较难集中注意力,坐直,遇到失望不易恢复,难以听从指令。这对他们在学校的表现有直接影响。

3.Sometimes stress is just too much for me to bear.

4.Laurence Steinberg, a psychologist at Temple University, has analyzed two separate neurological systems that develop in childhood and early adulthood that together have a profound effect on the lives of adolscents. The problem is, these two systems are not well aligned. The first, called the incentive processing system, makes you more sensation seeking, more emotionally reactive, more attentive to social information. The second, called the cognitive control system, allows you to regulate all those urges. The reason the teenage years have always been such a perilous time, Steinber says, is that the incentive processing system reaches it full power in early adolescence while the cognitive control system doesn’t finish maturing until you’re in your twenties. So for a few wild years, we are all madly processing incentives without a corresponding control system to keep our behavior in check.
青春期两种神经系统:刺激处理系统和认知控制系统 刺激处理系统进入最大值,认知控制系统却尚未成熟,两种系统发展的不一致导致青春期种种疯狂行为

5.We now know that early stress and adversity can literally get under a child’s skin, where it can cause damage that lasts a lifetime. But there is also some positive news in this research. It turns out that there is a particularly effective antidote to the ill effects of early stress, and it comes not from pharmaceutical companies or early-childhood educators but from parents. Parents and other caregivers who are able to form close, nurturing relationships with their children an foster resilience in them that protects them from many of the worst effects of a harsh early environment. This message can sound a bit warm and fuzzy, but it is rooted in cold, hard science. The effect of good parenting is not just emotional or psychological, the neuroscientists say; it is biochemical.
早期环境的压力和困境会对孩子的一生有重要影响,但如果父母能与孩子之间形成亲密的养育关系,这可以培养孩子的resilience(遇到困难时复原能力)。

6.Even if you can’t always take away bad housing or bad schooling, you can build in the parent an inner strength and resilience, so they can be the best parent they can be.

7.As the dropout reports rolled in, not just from the first KIPP class but from the second and third too, Levin noticed something curious: the students who persisted in college were not necessarily the ones who had excelled academically at KIPP. Instead, they seemed to be the ones who possessed certain other gifts, skills like optimism and resilience and social agility. They were the students who were able to recover from bad grades and resolve to do better next time; who could bounce back from unhappy breakups or fights with their parents; who could persuade professors to give them extra help after class; who could resist the urge to go out to the movies and instead stay home and study.
能在大学中坚持读下去的不一定是在KIPP时成绩好的学生。这些学生往往具有某种特殊的素质:乐观,坚韧,为人处世灵活。他们能够很快从糟糕的成绩中恢复,并决心下次努力。与恋人分手或与父母吵架后也能迅速平复,能够说服教师在课后给予额外帮助,能够抑制住出去看电影的欲望,在家里老实学习。

8.When it comes to teaching character, Levin and Feinberg found no equivalent mentor. The absence of any established structure for teaching character, or even talking about it, meant that each year, the discussions at KIPP schools would start from scratch, with teachers and administrators debating anew which values and behaviors they were trying to nurture in their students, and why, and how.

9.The book Learned optimism by Martin Seligman is the founding text of the movement, teaching that optimism is a learnable skill, not an inborn trait. Pessimistic adults and children can train themselves to be more hopeful, Seligman says, and if they do, they will likely become happier, healthier, and more successful. In learned optimism, Seligman wrote that for most people, depression was not an illness, as most psychologists believed, but simply a severe low mood that occurred when we harbor pessimistic beliefs about the causes of our setbacks. If you want to avoid depression and improve your life, Seligman counseled, you need to refashion our explanatory style, to create for yourself a better story about why good and bad things happen to you.
Martin Seligman写的书中说到,乐观并非与生俱来,是可以习得的。悲观的人可以把自己训练成更乐观的人。如果他们做到了,他们会更快乐, 更健康,更成功。书中说,抑郁并不是疾病,只是在我们对失败的原因有着悲观想法时出现的一种非常低落的情绪而已。如果想要避免抑郁改善生活,应该重塑诠释方式,对发生在你身上的事编一个更好的故事。

10.Pessimists, Seligman wrote, tend to react to negative events by explaining them as permanent, personal, and pervasive. ( the three P’s). Failed a test? It’s not because you didn’t prepared well; it’s because you’re stupid. If you get turned down for a date, there’s no point in asking someone else; you’re simply unlovable. Optimists, by contrast, look for specific, limited, short-term explanations for bad events, and as a result, in the face of a setback, they’re more likely to pick themselves up and try again.
悲观主义者对待负面事件的反应往往是将其诠释为永久的,个人的,有说服力的。考试不及格?不是因为你没准备好,而是因为你笨。约会被拒,根本没必要约别人,因为你没人爱。反观乐观主义者,他们在倒霉时,往往会用一些特定的,有限的,短期的解释。因此,遇到困难时,他们更容易振作精神,重新再来。

11.Like Levin. Randolph has pondered throughout his career as an educator the question of whether and how schools should impart good character. It has often felt like a lonely request.
12.What the labor market does value is the kind of internal motivation required to try hard on a test even when there is no external reward for doing well.
劳动力市场重视的就是这种内在的动力,在没有外部奖励的情况下也会努力。

13 14是grit这个词的产生过程
13.After publishing her groundbreaking self-control vs IQ study in Psychological Science in 2005, Duckworth began to sense that self-control wasn’t precisely the driver of success that she was looking for. She considered her own career. She was, by objective measures, very intelligent, and she recognized that she had high levels of self-discipline: she got u early; she worked hard; she met deadlines; she made it to the gym on a regular basis. And though she was certainly successful--very few doctoral students have their first-year these published in a prestigious journal like Psychological Science--her peripatetic early career was much less directed than that of, say, David Levin, who had found his life’s calling at 22 and had persisted at the same goal ever since, overcoming many obstacles and creating,with Michael Feinberg, a successful network of charter schools educating thousands of students. Duckworth felt that Levin, who was about her age, possessed some trait that she did not: a passionate commitment to a single mission and an unswering dedication to achieve that mission. She decided she needed to name this quality, and she chose the word GRIT.

14.Working with Chris Peterson, Seligman’s coauthor on Character Strengths and Virtues, Duckworth developed a test to measure grit, which she called the Grit Scale. It is a deceptively simple test, just 12 brief statements on which respondents must evaluate themselves, including “ New ideas and projects sometimes distract me from previous ones”; “setbacks don’t discourage me”; “I’m a hard worker”’ and “I finish whatever I begin.” for each students, respondents score themselves on a five-point scale, ranging from 5, “very much like me,” to 1, “not like me at all”. The test takes about 3 minutes to complete, and it relies entirely on self-report---and yet when Duckworth and peterson took it out into the field, they found it was remarkably predictive of success. Grit is only faintly related to IQ--there are smart gritty people and dumb gritty people--but at Penn, high grit scores allowed students who had entered college with relatively low college-board scores to nonetheless achieve high GPAs.

15.Levin and Randolph asked Peterson if he could narrow the list down to a more manageable handful, and Peterson identified a set of strengths that were, according to his research, especially likely to predict life satisfaction and high achievement. After a few small adjustments, they settled on a final list of seven: grit; self-control; zest; social intelligence; gratitude; optimism; curiosity.

16.Overindulging kids, with the intention of giving them everything and being loving, but at the expense of their character--that’s huge in our population.

17.The deeper success that Seligman and Peterson hold up up as the ultimate product of good character: a happy, meaningful, productive life. Randolph wants his students to succeed, of course---it’s just that he believes that in order for them to do so, they first need to learn how to fail.

18.At KIPP, we’ve always said that character is just as important as academics. We think that even if your children have the academic skills they need--and we’re doing our best to make sure they do--if our young adults grow up and they don’t also have strong character skills, then they don’t have very much. Because we know that character is what keeps people happy and successful and fulfilled.

19.SLANT stands for sit up, listen, ask questions, nod, and track the speaker with your eyes.

20.Cognitive-behavioral therapy, or CBT, involves using the conscious mind to recognize negative or self-destructive thoughts or interpretations and to (sometimes literally) talk yourself into a better perspective. The kids who succeed at KIPP are the ones who can CBT themselves in the moment. As he saw it, part of the job for him and the other KIPP teachers was giving their students the tools to do that. All kids this age are having mini-implosions every day. I mean, it’s middle school, the worst years of their lives. But the kids who make it are the ones who can tell themselves, “I can rise above this little situation. I’m okay. Tomorrow is a new day.”
认知行为疗法,包括利用意识来识别负面或自我毁灭性质的想法和解释,说服自己产生更好的观点。在KIPP成功的学生们能够在当下进行自我CBT疗法。那些成功的孩子这样对自己说:我能从这个小小的问题中站起来。我很好。明天又是新的一天。(Laura经常使用这种自我疗法,and it works)

(元认知)
21.Cognitive-behavior therapy is just one example of what psychologists call metacognition, an umbrella term that means, broadly, thinking about thinking. And one way to look at the character report card is as a giant metacognitive strategy. One of the things that first appealed to David Levin about Learned Optimism, in fact, was Martin Seligman’s assertion that the most fruitful time to transform pessimistic children into optimistic ones was “before puberty, but late enough in childhood so that they are metacognitive (capable of thinking about thinking)”--in other words, right around when students arrived at a KIPP middle school. Talking about character, thinking about character, evaluating character: these are all metacognitive process.
认知行为疗法实际上是心理学家所说的元认知的一个例子。也就是说思考自己的思考过程。(指人对自己的认知过程的认知,我最喜欢的)
他认为把悲观的孩子转化成乐观主义者最成熟的时期是青春期之前,童年后期且具有元认知能力的时候。

22.But Angela Duckworth believes that thinking and talking about character isn’t enough, especially for adolescents. It’s one thing to know abstractly that you need to improve your grit or your zest or your self-control. It’s another thing to actually have the tools to do so. This is the flip side of the distinction Duckworth draws between motivation and volition, or willpower. Just as a strong will doesn’t help much if a student isn’t motivated to succeed, so motivation alone is insufficient without the volitional fortitude to follow through on goals.
但。。认为仅仅思考和谈论性格还是不够的,尤其对青少年来说。知道需要提高自己的grit,增强热情和自控力是一回事,有方法实现却是另一回事。仅有动力不够,还要有毅力能坚持下来。

23.Mental Contrasting with Implementation Intentions, or MCII, was developed by NYU psychologist Gabriele Oettingen and her colleagues. Oettingen discovered in her research that people tend to use 3 strategies when they are setting goals and that two of those strategies don’t work very well. Optimists favor indulging, which means imagining the future they’d like to achieve (for a middle-school student, that might mean getting an A in math next year.) and vividly envisioning all the good things that will go along with it---the praise, the self-satisfaction, the future success. Oettingen found that indulging feels really good when you are doing it--it can trigger a nice dopamine surge---but it doesn’t correlate at all with actual achievement.
人们设定目标时有三种策略,其中两种不太有效。乐观主义者喜欢沉溺于想象。他们想象未来可能获得哪些成就,生动的设想成功所带来的一切好处--美誉,自我满足,未来的成功。这种方式感觉很好,因为能刺激多巴胺的增加,但和实际的成就并不关联。

24.Pessimists tend to use a strategy Oettingen calls dwelling, which involves thinking about all the things that will get in the way of their accomplishing their goals. If our prototypical middle-school student hoping for an A in math was a dweller, he might think about how he never finishes his homework, and there’s never anywhere quiet for him to study anyway, and besides, he always gets distracted in class. Unsurprisingly, dwelling doesn’t correlate well with achievement either.
25.悲观主义者的策略是悲观思量。他们会仔细想一切阻碍他们完成目标的事。这与成就也没有关联。

26.The third method is called mental contrasting, and it combines elements of the other two methods. It means concentrating on a positive outcome and simultaneously concentrating on the obstacles in the way. Doing both at the same time, Duckwork an Oettingen wrote in a recent paper, “ creates a strong association between future and reality that signals the need to overcome the obstacles in order to attain the desired future.” the next step to a successful outcome, according to Oettingen, is creating a series of “implementation intentions”--specific plans in the form of if/then statements that link the obstacles with ways to overcome them, such as “ if I get distracted by TV after school, then I will wait to watch TV until after I finish y homework.” Oettingen has demonstrated the effectiveness of MCII in a variety of experiments: the strategy has helped dieters eat more fruits and vegetables, high-school juniors prepare more diligently for the practice SAT, and chronic-back-pain patients gain more mobility.
第三种策略是心理对照。既关注积极的结果也关注可能的困难,这就使未来和现实之间产生了强烈的关联,提示了自己为达到目标,克服困难的必要性。下一步就是一系列的实施意向---以“如果。。那么。。”的形式把困难与方法联系起来详细计划。比如,“如果放学后被电视吸引,那么我会等写完作业后看电视”。

27.Just fantasizing about doing your math homework every day next semester--that feels really good right then,”Duckworth explained to the KIPP teachers in her workshop. “but you don’t go out and do anything. When I go into a lot of school, I see posters that say “dream it and you can achieve it” but we need to get away from positive fantasizing about how we’re all going to grow up to be rich and famous, and start thinking about the obstacles that now stand in the way of getting to where we want to be.” 我们不能总是幻想自己以后多么富有,多有名,我们应该开始想象在我们成功的路上有哪些障碍。

28.What MCII amounts to is a way to set rules for yourself. When you’re making rules for yourself, you’re enlisting the prefrontal cortex as your partner against the more reflexive, appetite-driven parts of your brains. Rules, are not the same as willpower. They are a metacognitive substitute for willpower. By making yourself a rule (I never eat fried dumpling”), you can sidestep the painful internal conflict between your desire for fried foods and your willful determination to resist them. Rules, provide structure, preparing us for encounters with tempting stimuli and redirecting our attention elsewhere. Before long, the rules have become as automatic as the appetites they are deflecting.
MCII要说的是为自己制定规则。如果你为自己制定规则,那么你的前额叶皮层成为了你的合作伙伴,和你一起对抗大脑中由欲望和反射驱使的那部分。规则,不同于意志力。规则是意志力的元认知代名词。通过给自己制定规则,你可以回避内心渴望和坚定决心之间的冲突。规则带来结构,使我们做好准备,更好的面对那些诱人的刺激,把注意力重新关注在其他地方。不久,规则就会变成自动的习惯。

29.When Duckworth talks about character, as she did that day at the KIPP workshop, she often cites William James, the american philosopher and psychologist, who wrote that the traits we call virtues are no more and no less than simple habits. “habit and character are essentially the same thing,” Duckworth explained to the KIPP teachers. “it’s not like some kids are good and some kids are bad. Some kids have good habits and some kids have bad habits. Kids understand it when you put it that way, because they know habits might be hard to change, but they’re not impossible to change. William James says our nervous systems are like a sheet of paper. You fold it over and over and over again, and pretty soon it has a crease. And I think that’s what you at KIPP are doing. When your students leave KIPP, you want to make sure they have the kind of creases that will lead them to success later on.
William James说我们所说的美德,不是别的,就是习惯而已。习惯和性格是一回事。孩子不分好坏,只是拥有不同的习惯而已。我们的神经系统就像一张纸。你折了一遍又一遍,很快,纸上出现了折痕。这就是KIPP所做的。当学生离开时,你想确保他们身上有能够带领他们走向成功的折痕。

30.Cognitive flexibility is the ability to see alternative solutions to problems, to think outside the box, to negotiate unfamiliar situations. Cognitive self-control is the ability to inhibit and instinctive or habitual response and substitute a more effective, less obvious one. Both skills are central to the training Spiegel gives to her students. To prevail at chess, you need a hightened abilility to see new and different ideas: which potentially lethal move of your opponent’s are you blindly ignoring? She also teaches them to resist the temptation to pursue an immediately attractive move, since that type of move often leads to trouble down the road. “teaching chess is really about teaching the habits that go along with thinking. Like how to understand your mistakes and how to be more aware of your thought processes.”
认知弹性指的是能够看到问题的其他解决方法,跳出固有的思维模式,成功越过不熟悉的状况。认知自控能力指的是能够抑制住本能或习惯的反应,并以更有效且看起来不甚明显的反应来代替。想在象棋中获胜,需要有较高的能力看到新的不同的观点,我是否忽视了对手某些潜在致命的一步?她还教学生抵制住诱惑,不去采用那些眼前有效的招数,因为这往往为后面的进程埋下炸弹。教象棋实际是在教思考和思考带来的习惯。比如怎么搞清楚自己的错误,怎样能更清楚自己的思维过程。

31.“it’s uncomfortable to focus so intensely on what you’re bad at,” “so the way people usually study chess is they read a book about chess, which can be fun and often intellectually amusing, but it doesn’t actually translate into skill. If you really want to get better at chess, you have to look at your games and figure out what you’re doing wrong.”
32.It’s a little like what people ideally get out of psychotherapy. You go over the mistakes you made--or the mistakes you keep making--and you try to get to the bottom of why you made them. And just like the best therapist, Spiegel tries to lead her students down a narrow and difficult path: to have them take responsibility for their mistakes and learn from them without obsessing over them or beating themselves up for them. “very rarely do kids have an experience in life of losing when it was entirely in their control. But when they lose a chess game, they know that they have no one to blame but themselves. They had everything they needed to win, and they lost. If that happens to you once, you can usually find some excuse, or just never think about it again. When it’s part of your life, when it happens to you every single weekend, you have to find a way to separate yourself from your mistakes or losses. I try to teach my students that losing is something you do, not something you are.
这就像人们从心理疗法中所得到的那样。你一次次回顾自己犯的错误,努力弄清楚错误的根本原因,Spiegel就像最好的治疗师一样,带着学生走上了这条狭窄而困难的道路: 让他们对自己的错误负责并从中学习,吸取教训,而不是让错误反复的困扰自己,折磨自己。“孩子们在生活中很少能经历失败,尤其是完全由自己掌控的失败。但当他们下棋输了,他们明白不能抱怨别人,只能怪自己。他们拥有可以取胜的一切条件,但却输了。如果这种事发生过一次,你通常可以找些借口就不再去想了。但如果每个周末都发生,你必须要想办法把自己从错误和失败中分开,我努力教我的孩子们,失败是你的行为,不是你的定义。

33.Everything i do for years comes down to how well we do here.

34.The best way to improve your chess is to play against the best, even if they take you apart.
提高棋艺最好的方法是和高手过招,一败涂地也在所不惜。

35.It may be difficult for an outsider to fully comprehend the allure of chess mastery.

36.Confirmation bias: it feels much better to find evidence that confirms what you believe to be true than to find evidence that falsifies what you believe to be true. Why go out in search of disappointment?
确认偏见(偏差):找到证据证明自己的观点是正确的要比证明自己的观点错误感觉好得多。为啥自找失望,自寻烦恼呢?

37.She sometimes talked about her past like it was a stain on her record that she would never be able to erase.

38.She had decided to quit beating herself up about the mistakes she made in her freshman year too.

39.Dominic Randolph, the head of the Riverdale Country School, who made a persuasive case that failure--or at least the real risk of failure--could often be a crucial step on the road to success.

40.The idea of building grit and building self-control is that you get that through failure. And in most highly academic environments in the US, no one fails anythings.
养成grit和自控能力关键要能够度过难关。

41.The heaviness of being successful was replaced by the lightness of being a beginner again, less sure about everything. Steve Jobs
成功带来的重担被重新开始的轻松所取代

42.Should I do something I’m good at or something I love? Take a chance or play it safe?
我该做擅长的事还是热爱的事呢?冒险一试还是稳妥前进呢?

43.As all parents do, between our urge to provide everything for our child, to protect him from all harm, and our knowledge that if we really want him to succeed, we need to first let him fail. Or more precisely, we need to help him learn to manage failure. Our job is not to prevent them from failing; it’s to teach them how to learn from each failure, how to stare at their failures with unblinking honesty, how to confront exactly why they had messed up. If they could do that, they would do better next time.

44.A reliable, replicable model 可靠的可复制的模式

45.James and Keitha and Kewarna are all working far harder than I ever did as a teenager to remake themselves and improve their lives. And every day they pull themselves up one more rung on the ladder to a more successful future. But for the rest of us, it’s not enough to just applaud their efforts and hope that someday, more young people follow their lead. They did not get onto that ladder alone. They are there only because someone helped them take the first step.

On this day@qiusir blog

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