01

zyt

作为老师,对这幅1895年的油画描绘的算术场景算是熟悉,想到超常部的小朋友们...
没想到这幅画描绘的是一百多年前的一所乡村学校,而油画中的那位老师竟是一位真人。拉钦斯基是莫斯科大学教授,也是著名的教育家、植物学家和数学家,他回到了家乡创建了一所带农民儿童宿舍的学校,开发了一种独特的口头计数教学方法,向乡村儿童灌输了他的技能和数学思维基础。而画家本人就曾经是他的学生...

注意到黑板上的算题,\frac{10^2+11^2+12^2+13^2+14^2}{356},这样的口算对我来说不太容易,而一百多年前的俄罗斯数学教育就这么厉害了啊。
1、熟悉平方数的话,也还好。100+121+144+169+196=730
2、利用关于12的对称性,
10^2+11^2+12^2+13^2+14^2
=(12-2)^2+(12-1)^2+12^2+(12+1)^2+(12+2)^2
=5\times 12^2+4+1+1+4
=5\times 144+10
3、拉钦斯基数列
10^2+11^2+12^2=13^2+14^2=365

[?]Sqr5's blog ...
另,抽空会再看看这篇文章,你不是“只是数学不好”[?]
“毫无准备的孩子没有意识到最好的人准备充分,认为是遗传能力决定了差异。”“决定他们“、‘根本不是数学家’,他们没有在课程中充分献出自己,从而强化了前者的优势。”

18

2021-3

(柳比耶夫(柳比歇夫))《奇特的一生》格拉宁著 外国文学出版社 1975年出版,汉语1979年第一版...
@qiusir:最初是从闹闹同学的桌布上看到“柳比耶夫”的名字,听她简单介绍了几句回去检索,然后在孔网上花费原价(0.37元)100倍以上的价格买来这本几乎和我一样老的小册子,铅笔在上面都很难留下痕迹...而阅读过程中常感慨,或许我个人的成长是为了能读懂它。
@qiusir:趁疫情线上教学,在家看完了《奇特的一生》,这是一本超值的书,应该感谢闹闹同学(我让她在这本小册子上签了名,并先我拿回家看)。是她把“柳比耶夫”写在桌布上以及简短的几句介绍,让我相信柳比耶夫的非凡,回去查找、阅读和自我更新,当然也不忘把书借闹闹同学看看。如此新知获得的过程,也是我心目中理想化的教学,闹闹同学是位优秀的学生,也是好的老师......
1、作者想着怎样吸引读者,读者寻思值不值得看下去
谈这个人的事,很想做到实事求是,又想写得生动些。这两个要求很难捏到一块。(我很难理解这是小说,当然,很多小说更新我对小说的刻板印象。)
真人真事当然是由妨碍的,捆住了手脚。虚构的人物好办得多。虚构的人物任人摆布,并且纤毫毕现---他的一切想法和意图,他的过去和未来,作者都一清二楚。
我希望看这本书的人越多越好;我正是为了这个目的才写这本东西的。
这个秘密是---怎么生活得更好。
我要描绘的是一位精神上的英雄,他的道德信条是如此崇高,以致如今看起来似乎是不合时宜了。
以小市民的眼光看,他是个典型的不走运的人。然而就生活的内在含义而论,这个人心灵和谐,很幸福,而且他的幸福是一种最高级的幸福。老实说,我原以为这种气质的人已经绝种了。简直是恐龙...好比古代发现土地,好比天文学家发现星座,作家也有发现人的福气。
他的个性如此恢弘开阔,却是我史料所不及的。我怀着羞愧的心情回想起我过去竟把他看成是个怪人,一个聪明可爱的怪人;我很痛心,错过了许多同他促膝相对的机会。
死者是属于大家的
作报告的人从柳比耶夫身上挑出他们喜欢的东西来讲,再不然就是选择他们需要的东西来做他们的论据。年复一年,他们塑造的柳比耶夫的各种形象会融合成某种中性的东西,说得确切些,融合成一种人人都能接受的折中的东西,没有矛盾,没有难解的谜,给磨平了棱角,很难辨认出原型。(伟人大概如此被塑造出的吧)

2、谈谈爱的起因及其奇异之处
柳比耶夫几乎没有学生,这不是偶然的。虽然许多创立了整个流派和学说的大科学家也大抵如此。爱因斯坦也没有学生,门捷列夫和罗巴切夫斯基也没有。
他没有学生,只有私淑弟子。也就是说,他并没有教他们,是他们向他学习。
3、作者介绍一些情况;不用说,这些情况全值得惊叹和发人深思
他一共写了五百多印张。等于一万二千五百张打印字稿。
有人问著名的组织学家聂佛梅瓦基,他怎么能一生都用来研究蠕虫的构造,他很惊奇:“蠕虫那么长,人生可是那么短!”
柳比耶夫自己就说过,他属于这样一类的学者(坐功好),给他们照相,不应该照脸,该照臀部。
今天,他的一些离经叛道的见解已升到有争议等级,一些有争议的见解已升到无可争议的等级。
4、谈谈有什么样的日记
送大儿子上前线,后来又送小儿子;两次送别,他的记载也是同样的不动感情。
他被撤过职,挨过整,受到过恫吓;但也有过胜利,有过喜庆的日子,有过天伦之乐---这一切,我在他的日记里没有发现一点痕迹。
5、谈谈时间,谈谈自己
“一切都不是我们的,而是别人的,只有时间是我们自己的财产。”
人一点也不珍惜别人的时间,虽然它是唯一再怎么想也无法收回的东西。
早在纪元初,公元五十年,科学工作者---塞纳卡满可以算作科学工作者---就已经在计算自己的时间,努力节约时间。
“我们一生的时间,大部分用于错误及种种恶行;很大一部分虚抛浪掷,无所事事。我们整个一生,几乎都没有用来干应当干的事。”
他是1916年1月1日开始的...当时他26岁,在部队里服役,是在化学委员会,在著名化学家手下工作。时逢元旦,人们往往在这一天发下誓愿...柳比耶夫也是在这一天起的誓。
不管怎么样,从1916年到1972年他去世的那一天,56年如一日,柳比耶夫的历史长编一天也没有中断过;连儿子夭亡也挡不住他在这份没完没了的结算表上记上一笔。
对他来说,时间的急流是看得见摸得着的,他仿佛置身于这一急流之中,觉得出来光阴在冷冰冰地流逝。
做这样的分析,比做忏悔需要更大的精神力量。在上帝面前坦白,总要比在凡人面前坦白更容易些。把自己的弱点、恶习、空虚等等统统暴露在众人面前和自己面前,是需要勇气的。
德鲁克说得对,只有卢梭或托尔斯泰这样的人,才能严格无情地剖析自己。

6、作者想追根究底,了解事情的起源
传说施利曼起誓要找到特洛伊遗墟的时候才八岁...是这种目标向直线进军,终生锲而不舍的情况下在科学史上极为罕见。柳比耶夫二十多岁刚开始从事学术工作的时候,也明确地知道他要达到什么目标。真实幸福而不平凡的命运啊。
二十三对的维尔南茨基写道,他立意“要在智能、知识和才华上尽量取得实力,这样我的智慧便会无比的丰富多彩...”他在另一处写道,“我充分意识到,我可能是致力于错误的、靠不住的东西,误入歧途;但我不能不走这条路...”(非如此不可的德国谚语?es muss sein!)“我完全知道,我可能在追求真理中死去,可能因此而丧身,但我重要得的是找到真理,即使不是找到,那也是力求找到,不管这个真理是多么令人苦恼,是多么虚无缥缈,多么卑鄙龌龊。”
柳比耶夫当时只成人文学是学好外语的一种工具。《安娜·卡列尼娜》他看得是德文版,“因为译文要比原文易懂。”
一个人仅仅做到有良心、规矩正派,那时不够的。
7、他的方法是怎么起的头
“我像是果戈里笔下的阿卡基耶维奇,在抄抄写写中找到乐趣...”
利用任何所谓的“时间下脚料”...
每一次散步,他都用来捕捉昆虫。在那些废话连篇的会议上,他演算习题...
计划就是挑选时间、规定节律,使一切都各得其所。
他的时间好像是物质,不会无影无踪地消失不见,不会消亡;它变成了什么,总能查得出来。他由于做了统计,获得了时间。这是最实在的收获。
1967年77岁的他,俄文书50本,四十八小时;英文书2本五小时;法文书3本,二十四小时;德文书2本,二十小时...
我们要做到心安理得,最好把他看成怪人:人世间怪人还少吗......
8、这一切需要多少代价,这代价值得不值得付......

柳比耶夫以他的总结作为镜子,这面镜子的水银有点儿特别:它照出来的不是人现在的面目,而是他过去的面目,才过去不久的。在一般的镜子面前,人在他自己的目标逼视之下,总要装出一副样子,装成什么样子到无所谓,主要是要装。镜子里照出来的,是他希望的那副模样。

9、作者照例要做到自圆其说,并照出一个人人满意的公式
一个钢铁般的人出现在我面前:什么都阻挡不了他去完成既定的任务。计划生活的骑士、机器人、献身于他的方法的苦行僧。
他说,眼泪无助于消弭痛苦,人要控制自己,越快越好;为死者哀恸---这是宗教感情的残余;死者不能复生,哀恸有什么意思?
他的英勇的、道德高尚的行为是出之于理智而不是出之于感情。
可以说,他是依靠他那最合理的方法一手造就了自己;他创造了他的方法,他通过他的方法证明,如果把一切能集中到一个目标上,可以取得多么多的成就。
它是理智的凯歌。
他生前最后二十年,做的工作一点不比他青年时代少。他的方法有益于他的身心...不比去介意那些说什么机械性的责难。对理智也好,对心灵也好,机械性并不可怕。精神要去害怕科学和唯理主义,那多害臊!如果真是这样,那不该让机械性同精神发生冲突,而该让奴性的精神同崇高的精神交战。

10、本章由柳比耶夫亲自定名为《论因子总量》,兼论由此得出的结论
画家画人的肖像...人的一半总是隐藏在画面的后面。
书页也是一种平面。我力争做大的,并不是立体,而只是立体感。
他能够叫时间服从他,但不能左右环境。
乐天因子(祖父)、争论因子(爸爸)、流浪因子(先人)、反教条因子(祖先)、捞因子(经商的父亲)、好心肠因子...
“他的信教不是因为怕鬼,而是因为爱上帝。”
精神上捞一把的兴趣,我是全部继承下来了。(柳比耶夫的多方涉猎,让我想起了弗里曼·戴森)
一个科学家,他在学术上声誉越高,他的精神品质水平也越叫人感兴趣。
人的精华中,最值得称道、最牢固的,是精神价值。
但是,谁要是有福气遇见一个纯洁的、精神世界很美的人,你恨不得把心都掏给他的这样一个人---谁要是遇见了这样一个人,就没有什么可换的了。因为人不可能长进得超过善良或真诚。
“我身上有很大的空想的勇气,具有巴扎罗夫那种真正的虚无主义,也就是说,不承认什么东西可以不受理智的批判...”“人比机关好,人比信仰好...”
“您的衣着举止不拘小节,独行其是,我很佩服;但遗憾的是,我没有勇气学您的样子。”这样的恭维话,出自一位地道聪明人之口,抵消了庸人们成千上万次的白眼...“小市民会对你有些讥讽嘲笑,这是一种有益的心理上的锻炼,能让你培养我行我素的精神...”(这一点我省悟太晚,迎合别人成了我生存的技能,即便不需要还保留着,很是悲哀。这是我能意识到的少有的苦出身的劣行...)
“人家对我侧目而视,但到后来他们发现,我演算习题并没有耽误听别人发言。”
他身上有一种向自己提问的需求;这些问题,人们是早就放弃了的...他的可贵,在于努力做出回答,不怕有错误。
看了这些信,禁不住又羡慕又难过---随着这一代人的逝去,本世纪初和十月革命时代的俄罗斯文化即将成为明日黄花,过眼烟云。
(这么好的书,论说不应该用铅笔做标记的,一方面,我读书真实是为了自己,而对于我能接触到的人,这本书对后人可能不会被看到,何不好好用在当下。我对族人的失望不是一天两天了...)
11、谈谈某些学者的一种特性
对一个纪念馆来说,死亡并不是重点,而是存在的开端。
纸张,笔记、墨水继续散发出书写人手上的热气,透露出他的情绪。
我独自一人坐在门捷列耶夫的书房里沉思这一件事:当然,电子计算机把人们从事务性工作中解放出来,然而与此同时,电子计算机又剥夺了人们从事事务性工作的机会...我们只有失去它之后,才能发现这一点...
即使这一工作没有用什么重大的意义,例如做做复制品的卡片目录,但从事这一工作时,感到很愉快。这种快感,实际上就是意义本身。(工作,当谈到意义时,就失去了大多的意义。)
科学的永恒性就在坚持不懈的寻求之中,科学就其容量而言,是永不枯竭的,就其目标而言,是永远不可企及的。”俄罗斯博物学家卡·冯·伯尔
在我们的时代,决心献身于一种旁人看来极不严肃的工作,是需要一定的勇气的。需要勇气和热爱。
一个上了年纪的、仪表端庄的人,突然无视身旁的行人,跨过水洼去追一个甲壳虫,一个人要做到这一点,必须有婴儿般的纯洁和不顾一切的品质。他说,人们把昆虫学家看成是傻瓜,这有时反而是一件好事,因为这样,昆虫学家们就可以毫无危险地闯入最富“掠夺性”的地点,反正人们会把它们当做无害的怪物加以嘲笑。

12、一切都得付出代价
这些昆虫被视为一股危险的力量,是同大量形形色色的人有着厉害关系的---一些集体农庄就可以为所欲为...
在学术方面,举手通过不说明任何问题;科学又不是国会,而且多数往往并不正确。
13、谈谈矛盾
他不时将自己的年度总结寄给朋友们。
据说总主教德罗兹陀夫在年轻时特别笨,当过牧童,但有一次被重重地击了一下前额,从此之后,他才华横溢,从了总主教。(我消失被嘲笑让心眼子坠住了,但学习不怎么样似乎,但会老家后额头留下了疤,现在还有,一直被误以为是皱纹,我紧缩愁眉一样,其实是疤。而似乎从那以后我学习就可以了...遗憾没去神学院啊。)
他的时间统计法使他珍惜每一寸光阴,使他崇敬时间。
“他一生的时间并不是他的私有财产,而是拨给他从事科研工作的,科研工作就是他的使命和他一生中的主要快乐,为了完成这一使命,他节约时间,计算归他支配的每个小时和每一分钟。”
对柳比耶夫来说,预先安排好的不是命运,不是行动,不是心情,而是他的工作。

有这么一句古老的谚语:一个医生,如果他仅仅是一个好医生,那他就不可能是一个好医生。对科学家当然也可以这么说。一个科学家如果他仅仅是一个科学家,那他也就不可能是一个大科学家。

他的一生是无休止争执的一生。内心的争执使他对生活中的一切邪恶更加敏感,更加无法容忍。这无休止的争执培育了他的道德。当一个人意识到历史是由他,也是为他创造的时候,他就能胸怀全世界。能意识到国家的命运就是自己个人的命运,这就是公民责任感。他对吉米利亚泽夫能把一个科学家对纯科学的忠诚与对全体人民的社会责任感结合在一起如此崇敬,这绝非偶然。胸怀全世界,这是从属于整个人类的一种感觉。
牛顿认为《评先知达尼拉的书......》是自己一生最伟大的创作...牛顿在解决万有引力定律这个问题时,需要有东西来填补宇宙空间。他就用上帝来填补了这个空间。只有靠上帝,他才能理解万有引力。对神学的研究似乎反而给他带来好处---这正如开普勒对占星术的迷信反而促使他创立了潮汐说的正确理论一样。
但愿你能知道,
诗句可从糟粕中寻找,
不需要害臊。
...然而失败还是胜利
你自己不应去注意。

他的时间统计法象过去为他的长处服务一样,开始驯服地位他的弱点服务。
有一点他知道得非常深刻,而且曾多次向别人说起过:谁同现实妥协,谁就是对未来没有信心。
14、幸福的倒霉鬼
他属于能超越自己可能性界限的那种人。
他具备一切足以获得盛誉的条件:意志力、想象力、记忆力、禀赋以及其他品质。它们搭配恰当、匀称。
我认识一位物理学家,他至少能完成三项最重大的发明。可是每次他都一而再,再而三地反复验证,到头来别人超过了他。对自己过分的苛求---他过分害怕出差错---反而害了他...单有思考能力还不够,还需要有性格。
他属于为生物学准备新观点的那种人。他播种,却明知看不到发芽。
要说他最不能容忍的是什么,那就是无可争辩的真理,不可动摇的信仰、绝对的结论。
在最精密的科学领域中,没有普遍公认的东西,相反,有的却是巨大的意见分歧。
科学愈不精密,他们就愈没有变动,而在精密科学汇总,变化是巨大无比的,而且持续不断地进行着...
伟大的卡·冯·伯尔以《观察与思考》作为自己著作的题目,可是在当代著作中,观察极多,而思考却往往极少...您的哲学见解(与大多数生物学家的哲学见解雷同),处于某某(当时写了一系列毫水平的生物学上论文的一位作家)的生物学见解的水平上:结果是两种---不仅是完全的无知,而且是教条主义地肯定实际上属于迷信的东西。

但是一个人没有才华,没有杰出的才能,又有什么罪过呢?而有才华的人又有什么功绩可言呢?是呀,天才科学家对科学的贡献多于中乘之材。然而一个天才的科学家身上表现出来的主要是自然界,而不是这个人本身。

柳比耶夫不是一个天才,天才永远是哪个总其成的人。一种事业,总有许多先驱者为之献出智慧,最后轮到一个人来完成它,这个人就是天才。(牛顿、爱因斯坦...)
天才只适合于让大家来赞美。
除了时间统计法之外,柳比耶夫还有几条守则:
1我不承担必须完成的任务;
2我不接受紧急的任务;
3一累马上停止工作去休息;(疫情期间可以基本做到,但生活节奏还是很不适应。)
4睡得很多,十小时左右;
5把累人的工作同愉快的工作结合在一起。
人们经常敌意地对待时间。空间、物质---这些东西都能以某种方式加以驯服。时间却始终那么放荡不羁。
他对时间就像对不可或缺的生活口粮那样重视。
不依我们意志为转移的客观条件,具有充分权力和理由的客观条件真实威力无比!把责任往它们身上一推,那时多么轻而易举啊...
(阳光下,梅花旁,轻盈的乐曲中,一杯温水一本旧书...)
柳比耶夫经常称自己是个倒霉鬼,同时又觉得自己是一个幸福的人。他的幸福感从何而来?可能是由于他充分地施展了身手,尽情发挥了他的聪明才智。倒霉鬼和幸福---我不知道怎样才能使两者结合在一起。也许他明白,主要的并不在于成果...
当今用古代颂歌风格写的名人传记中,一些完全不足信的美德备受表扬。
应当还有比科学、比时间更为珍贵的东西...
苏联画家菲洛诺夫,将自己全部的禀赋倾注于一件事上---那就是他的绘画。
可以说,莫洛佐夫收集了像勃朗峰那么高的一大堆事实,但可以拿出像喜马拉雅山那么高的一大堆事实来反驳他。就我对达尔文主义所抱的深刻信念和所持的态度而言,也完全可能说出诸如此类的话来...我可以充满信心地说,有着像喜马拉雅山那么高的一大堆事实同达尔文主义的观点不相协调一致,而且这座山还在不断增高...
精密科学的历史在相当大的程度上是信仰“占星术影响”,也就是天体对地面现象发生作用的观点的人(包括哥白尼、开普勒和牛顿)同完全否认这种观点的人(其中最杰出的是伽利略)之间的斗争史。

“正派人”的概念不大能使柳比耶夫(柳比歇夫)感到满足,仅就这一点来说,柳比歇夫的到的纲领就够独特的了。在他眼里,“正派人”就是那些智力和道德水准相当于“集体水准”的人。他的要求不同---他要求真正的道德,也就是说,要求一个人能独立地进行自我修养以提高道德水准,要求一个人不是把道德看成是墨守成规,而是一种克制和自我修养的过程。

“一些科学家取了第一部分,于是躲进了象牙塔中,并认为他们有权忽视时代的要求,同时,这些科学家们总是把真正纯理论的科学同微不足道的探求,同毫无用处的可续色混淆在一起...”
对于柳比歇夫,任何时候都不能说他自己“成为”怎样一个人。他永远正在“逐步成为”怎样一个人。他一直在探索,一直在变化,他总是重新考虑,不断提高对自己和对自己理想的要求。
时间统计法帮助了他,或者是迫使他...

15、本章最好题为“考验”
“竟有这么多我不需要的东西。”
人们把他当做怪物。他也不拒绝这一称谓。苏格拉底也曾被人当做怪物,这完全符合苏格拉底的本质。柳比歇夫懂得,一旦独树一帜,就不可能很快得到别人的理解。无怪乎王尔德说过,“当人们马上同意我的意见时,我就觉得我的意见时不正确的。
开普勒可以安慰自己说,“...我写书是为了给人读的,现在读还是将来读,不都一样吗?它可以等上几百年,要知道,连上帝也等了六千年才等到理解他工作意义的人。”
...为了自己的‘成就’(赫罗洛斯特拉特烧掉了神庙,终于达到了自己的目的---名垂千古),他贡献出自己的生命。大量沽名钓誉的人把自己的成就建立在巨大的、用人尸垒成的金字塔上,危害性要比他大得多。
他不期待别人的赞扬,他学会了自己对自己作出公正的评价。
你是你自己最高的审判者;你对自己劳动的估价会比任何人都严格...
他不但善于利用时间的下脚料供自己做有益的事,而且还善于把命运给他下的绊子变成好事。
有人有这样的天性:他所呆的地方,就是世界的中心,就是地轴转动的地方。他们从事的工作,就是最为重要和最为必要的工作。
一个实现自己愿望并未自己的愿望而生活着的人,能给人们带来最大利益...由此产生了对自己---不是对别人,对别人我们都会,说先应当是对自己---的严格要求。
我认识一些作家,他们从未从自己所写的东西中做出任何针对自己的结论。他们坚持的东西,同他们本人没有任何关系。唯一的一件事就是当他们的书遭到反对时,他们就赶紧去捍卫它。教育的是别人,要求别人去思考,号召别人去行善...作者在这种情况下无论如何也不愿意把自己的论断用于自己身上,他认为自己有权把自己同别人区分开。
他对别人的要求和对自己的要求是完全一致的。
...正是以自己毕生的功勋赢得了向我们心灵发出号召的权利。
柳比歇夫去不然,他自己对自己提出要求,自己监督自己,自己监视自己,自己向自己回报。(每年读书汇总等,这一点我有点类似哈哈哈)
大多数人不想试着超越自己可能性的极限;他们一辈子也不想试着了解他们能干些什么,不能干些什么。他们不知道,什么是他们里不能及的。这种审慎稳妥在科学界是最可悲的。
(读书,整理笔记,身边的人这样,你也可以这样,这是师范的基本示范。)
柳比歇夫不是按照自己的能力去衡量任务,而是按照任务去衡量能力。他认为,有一种精神上的义务,要比保持心灵上的安全感好。
德谟克利特有句话:决定人的精神品质的,不是他的行为本身,而是他的意图。(米卢似乎说过态度决定一切?)
但在平时,不是也突然会有精神焕发、非比寻常的时刻吗?力量也不知从哪儿来的,如泉涌至,头脑变得敏锐了,想象力十分活跃...这种幸福的、如醉如痴的状态,在作家称之为灵感,在运动员名为巅峰状态,在科学家则叫做开窍;这种情况每个人都有---有些人不常有有,另一些人比较经常...人超越了自己,超越了他平常的能力和极限,这种情况是由可能发生的,重要的正是这一点。这么说,这是可能的,而既然能有一次,那么为什么不能有两次,不能每天头这样呢?...

最后一章、感伤和自白
为什么没有时间守恒定律呢?

柳比歇夫的时间不是取得成就的时间。柳比歇夫摆脱了赶过别人,夺取第一,超越什么,获得什么...的愿望。他热爱时间,珍惜时间,不是把它当作工具,而是把它看成是进行创造的条件。他对时间十分虔诚,同时又体贴入微,他认为时间对人们如何使用它并不是无所谓的。时间不是个物理概念,不是时针的转动,而好像是个道德概念...他坚信,时间是最宝贵的财富,不能乱用在怄气上,不能乱用在竞争角逐或满足虚荣心上。在他看来,对待时间的态度是个道德问题。

当作者随心所欲地支配自己的时间时,他体验到一种解放的幸福。这样的时间充满了光明和安宁。
如果象古希腊人通常所作的的那样把时间比作激流,那么柳比歇夫就是这激流中的发电站和联动发电机。
...详尽的回忆录,其中充满了对于过去的衷心感激,可是现在的人们却如此轻而易举地为了将来而忘记过去。
但任何人,甚至最伟大的人,也不应当从近处去观察,并深入细致地观察他的爱好、习性。(看人和看油画有点类似,要保持适当的距离,有适当的光线...)
因为要在每日每时的自我克制中感到幸福,需要具备怎样一种精神力量呀!我们虽然从远处观察这一不断升华的精神,但也仍然禁不住产生欣喜和羡慕之感,禁不住对着人类精神的巨大能量深表敬佩。
柳比歇夫并没有建树丰功伟绩,可他建树的要比功绩的意义更为重大---这就是过的很好的一生。这一生的其特性、谜或秘密就在于柳比歇夫把一生中的特殊现象看成是自然现象。
@qiusir:看到原价0.37元,让我惊讶的不是物价的膨胀,而是书本的廉价,同时,如此便捷能获取知识,那无知就是一种可耻了。
@qiusir:她现在对这本书应该还看不懂多少,真心希望十年或二十年后她能再次翻看此书,能在字里行间感受到老师对由她而看到的这本书的感激和期待...

·年末温习20221202
(很薄的一本小册子,写了很长的一篇读书笔记。)(管很文静的小暄-可能是这么写-叫闹闹,可想她听到的时候会是怎样的心情哈哈哈,物理似乎高考满分,尽管总分不是很理想,相信这么早就能喜欢柳比耶夫的她一定会有更辉煌的自己。)
一位精神上的英雄,他的道德信条是如此崇高,以致如今看起来似乎是不合时宜了。
柳比耶夫自己就说过,他属于这样一类的学者(坐功好),给他们照相,不应该照脸,该照臀部。(进化的人的审美应该在基因上有相应变化?)
他的英勇的、道德高尚的行为是出之于理智而不是出之于感情。

他播种,却明知看不到发芽。
然而一个天才的科学家身上表现出来的主要是自然界,而不是这个人本身。
他永远正在“逐步成为”怎样一个人
他不但善于利用时间的下脚料供自己做有益的事,而且还善于把命运给他下的绊子变成好事。
对待时间的态度是个道德问题。

04

东北育才学校高中部2022届成人仪式暨高考百日誓师大会
作为教师代表的发言(文稿、图片和音频)

2021-3

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17

Out of Our Minds: Learning to be Creative Sir Ken Robinson


The book looks at the nature of personal talent and creativity and the conditions in which it flourishes.

The more complex the word becomes, the more creative we need to be to meet its challenges.
I trust you will find a great deal here to interest and engage you.
These standards were designed for other times and for other purposes.
We will not succeed in navigating the complex environment of the future by peering relentlessly into a rear-view mirror.(通过后视镜来观察是无法在未来复杂的环境中顺利通行)
We are living in a world that is changing faster than ever and facing challenges that are unprecedented.

Creativity is a rare talent.
A culture of creativity has to involve everybody, not just a select few.
As our case is new, so we must think anew and act anew.
We are not going back to the good old days.


image via edutopia[?]教育乌托邦,Utopia“没有的地方”或者“理想完美的境界”,edutopia教育理想国。)
Government are pouring vast resources into education reform.
Parent lie awake at night worrying about the quality of their children's education.
Lead a life that has meaning and purpose.
After the arrival of television, the world was never the same place again.
Some people struggled to see why it would replace horse and carriages.

Like the printing press, the motorcar changed the world in ways that its inventors could not have imagined.
He could not have foreseen the mushrooming expansion of the Internet.

The evolution of the Internet has been driven not only innovation in technology but also by unleashing the imaginations and appetites of millions of users, which in turn are driving further innovations in technology.

Digital technologies are blurring the boundaries between home and work, business an pleasure.
We live in a time when the ability to adapt is critical.
There is no agreed definition of intelligence.
Human intelligence is much richer than we have been led to believe by industrial/academic education.
You are more than you think.

For most of them it's the first time that they'll be seen in a positive light.
Make groundbreaking contribution in their own area of work.
Creating a place where children feel safe and challenged. Graduates leave with a sense of capability, endurance and resilience, owning a confidence about taking on enormous challenges in there lives.
A deep sense of value, of being loved and appreciated, and a trust for group process and cooperation, enables them to feel that excellence is in their own hands.

Students are encouraged to be leaders and schools leaders are encouraged to be visionaries. our schools strive to create a respectful, diverse, creative, exciting and reflective culture.
We are building a school system that inspires and awakens the possibilities of an engaged and vital life within our youth.
Everyone has a stake in the future of education.

Imagination is the process of bringing to mind things that are not present to our senses; creativity is the process of developing original idea that have value; innovation is the process of putting new ideas into practice.
Everyone has a huge creative capacities as a natural result of being a human being. The challenges is to develop them. A culture of creativity has to involve everybody not just a select few.

Being creative does usually involve playing with ideas and having fun, enjoyment and imagination. But creativity is also about wiring in a highly focused way on ideas and projects, crafting them into their best forms and making critical judgments along the way about which work best and why. In every discipline, creativity also draws on skill, knowledge and control. It's not only about letting go, it's about holding on.

We are all born with immense natural talents but that too few people discover what they are and even fewer develop them properly. Ironically one of the main reasons for this massive waste of talents is the very process that it meant to develop it: education.

In imagination we can bring to mind things that are not present to our senses. We can visit the past. We can review and reinterpret the past...

The problem is that many of our established ways of doing things, in business, in government and education, are rooted in old ways of thing They are facing backwards, not forwards.

The impossible yesterday is routine today, Wait until tomorrow.
Civilization is a race between education and catastrophe. The problem is that too often and in too many ways, current systems of mass education are a catastrophe in themselves. Far from looking to the future, too often they are facing stubbornly the past.

The front-loading model of education: you accumulate your educational resources at the beginning of your life and you eke them out gradually as you get older. It's also called gas tank mode: you are filled up in your mouth with an initial supply of education, which is meant to see you through the rest of life's journey.
Technology, is not technology if it happened before you were born.
We don't teach people how to deal with failure and this is a fundamental oversight.

All truth passes through three stages: first, it is ridiculed. Second, it is violently opposed. Third, it is accepted as being self-evident. Arthur Schopenhauer(叔本华)
Our ideas can enslave or liberate us.

We ask how we can measure intelligence. The assumption is that intelligence is quantifiable. We ask how can raise academic standards but do not question whether they deliver what we need to survive in the future. We ask where we can find talented people but ignore the talents of people that surround us. We look but we do not see, because our traditional common-sense assessment of abilities distract us from what is actually there. We ask how to promote creativity and innovation but stifle the processes and condition that are most likely to bring it about.
Dance is the hidden language of the soul.
Intelligence is not only diverse: it is highly dynamic.

One of the consequences of a narrow view of ability is a correspondingly wide view of disability.(对能力的狭隘认知直接导致对无能的广泛定义。)
If you're interested in the ultimate character of the physical world, at present time our only way to understand it is through a mathematical type of reasoning.
There are many aspects of the world where mathematics is unnecessary, such as love, which are very delightful and wonderful to appreciate and to feel awe about.(世界上很多的方面是用不到数学的,比如说爱情。爱情美妙绝伦,令人愉悦并产生敬畏。)

We see the world not as it is, but through a veil of conception.
Just when I found out the meaning of life, they changed it. George Carlin
(1.Just when I discovered the meaning of life, they changed it.
2.Ever notice that anyone going slower than you is an idiot, but anyone going faster is maniac?)

Creativity is a dialogue between the ideas and the media in which they are being formed. Dancers think physically.
when I ask how many of his experiments fail, he(Chemist Sir Harry Kroto) said: you're just finding out what doesn't work.
Albert Einstein: Anyone who has never made a mistake, has never tried anything new.
I don't mean to say that being wrong is the same thing as being creative but if you're not prepared to be wrong, it's unlikely that you'll ever come up with anything original.

Creative insights often occur by making unusual connection: seeing analogies between ideas that have not previously been related.(当你看到通常不被联系起来的想法的相似性时,创造性的想法就出现了。)
Personal creativity often comes from a love for particular materials. I spoke once with a professor of physics from California. He described himself as a native speaker of algebra.

Being good at something isn't a good enough reason to spend your life doing it.
I am not what has happened to me. I am what I choose to become. Carl Jung

1.If one does not understand a person, one tends to regard him as a fool.
2.Children are educated by what the grown-up is and not by his talk.
3.There are many nights as days, and the one is just as long as the other in the year's course. Even a happy life cannot be without a measure of darkness, and the word happy would lose its meaning if it were not balanced by sadness. It is fa better take things as they come along with patience and equanimity.
4.There is no coming to consciousness without pain.
5.A collection of a hundred great brains makes one big fathead.
6.The greatest and most important problems in life are all in a certain sense insoluble. They can never be solved, but only outgrown.
7.Your vision will become clear only when you can look into your own heat. Who looks outside, dreams; who looks inside, awakens.
8.Everthing that irritates us about others can lead us to an understanding of ourselves.
9.The creation of something new is not accomplished by the intellect but by the play instinct acting from inner necessity. The creative mind plays with the objects it loves.
10.We cannot change anything unless we accept it. Condemnation does not liberate, it oppresses.
11.The least of things with a meaning is worth more in life than the greatest of things without it.

Education should develop the whole child and not just their academic abilities. It should engage their feelings. physical development, moral education and creativity.

Knowledge of self is a important as knowledge of the external world. Exploring personal feelings and values is essential and so are opportunities to exercise imagination and self-expression.
One of the main roles of teachers is to draw out the individual in every child. In this sense, education is a process of self-realization.

They argued in different ways that children should be allowed to follow a natural pattern of development rather than a standard course of instruction. Above all, naturalist wanted to address the whole child: mind, body and spirit.
They promote the idea of the individual breaking free from the constraints of culture. For the rationalists, the individual becomes independent of cultural influences by the power of rational, objective though. Since objective knowledge exist independently of people and culture, the rational individual is free of culture bias and sees the world just as it is. For the naturalist, the aim is to liberate the individual spirit from the pressures of culture and reveal the authentic self.
(两者均倡导个人发展应打破文化的束缚。理性主义者认为,个人应该通过理智客观的思考独立于文化的影响。既然客观知识的存在不以人和文化的存在而转移,那么理性个人就应当不受文化偏见的左右,客观的认识世界。自然主义者的目的是为了把个体精神从文化的压迫中解放,从而展示真我。)

How we feel about something is an expression of our relationship with it, In that sense, feelings are evaluations.
As Isaac Newton famously said, if he saw further than others, it was because he stood on the shoulder of giants.
As Victor Hugo said, "nothing is more powerful than an idea whose time has come."
Nurture a culture where everyone can have new ideas.

Education is not a linear process of preparation for the future: it is about cultivating the talents and sensibilities through which we can live our lives in the present and create the future for ourselves.
Education has three core purposes:
Personal: to develop student's individual talents and sensibilities.
Cultural: to deepen their understanding of the world around them.
Economic: to enable them to earn a living and be economically productive.

As Socrates famously express it ,"Education is the kindling of a flame, not the filling of a vessel." All students have different interests, and learning styles. What and how they are taught has to engage their energies, imaginations and their different ways of learning. No one can be made to learn against his or her will. Learning is a personal choice.

Some people argue that personalizing education for every student is an impossible pipe dream: it would be too expensive and teachers simply could not give every student the necessary time and attention. There are two answers to this argument.
The first is that there is absolutely no alternative. Education is personal or it is nothing. Personalized learning is an investment not a cost.
The second argument is that it is possible to personalize learning for every student. One of the way is can be done is through the creative use of new technologies. Information technologies are among the driving forces of the economic and culture revolution and one of the reason why the industrial model of education is becoming obsolete. Some of the most powerful tool for promotion creativity, communication and collaboration ever devised now offer unprecedented opportunities for education to be personalized.

Creativity is not about a lack of constraints, often it is about working within them and overcoming them. The dynamics of culture are such that change travels in all directions. With the power of the Internet and of social networking, ideas and innovations can move quickly and inspire others to action. Sensitive policy makers will feel the change and may even say it was their idea.

(At the end of the day, what you really want is the guy who inspires you, not the guy who influenced you.)
The task of education is not to teach subjects: it is to teach students. No school is better than its teachers. When you think of your own time at school it is the people you remember: your contemporaries, and especially the teacher: the ones who turned you on and the ones who turned you off; who build you up or knocked you down. In the right context, a casual remark by a teach , or even a raised eyebrow or tone of voice can set you on a lifelong journey of discovery or put you off taking even the first step.

Creativity depends on interaction between feeling and thinking, and across different disciplinary boundaries and fields of ideas. Mastery in teaching is like mastery in any other profession. Knowing which to draw from to meet the needs of the present situation is a process of connoisseurship that expert teachers also share.
(创造力取决于感受和思考的互动,而且是跨学科跨领域的。教学上的精通等同于其他领域专家。通过汲取来满足当下的需要就是成为行家里手的过程也是教育专家所拥有的素质。)

There is a different between teaching through creativity and teaching for creativity. Good teachers know that their role is to engage and inspire their students. This is a creative process in itself. Too many teaches are hired for knowledge of their discipline rather than their interest in students. Good teacher requires personal knowledge as well as the ability to engage others.

Teaching for creativity is about facilitating other people's creative work. Teaching for creativity involves asking open-ended question where there may be multiple solutions; working in groups on collaborative projects, using imagination to explore possibilities. Teaching for creativity involves teaching creatively.

There are three related tasks in teaching for creativity: encouraging, identifying and fostering.
Encouraging: the first task in teaching for creativity in any field is to encourage people to believe in their creative potential and to nurture the confidence to try. Other attitudes important for creative leaning include: high motivation and independence of judgment; a willingness to take risk and be enterprising, to be persistent and to be resilient in the face of false starts, wrong turns and dead ends.
(鼓励人们相信自己的创造潜能以培养勇于尝试的自信。其他重要的态度包括:高度的积极性,独立判断能力,敢于冒险,有进取心,面对不成功的开始,错误的转弯和走入死胡同时的具有持之以恒和坚忍不拔的精神。)
Identifying: a second role is to help students to discover their own creative strengths.

Knowledge can be generated in many ways other than in words and numbers. Not everything we know can be put into words and numbers, nor are words and numbers all that we know. It is far all these reasons that schools have to offer curricula that are broad and balanced.

The implication of diversity is that breadth in schools should be balanced by depth. Alongside any common curriculum, there have to be opportunities for students to go more deeply into areas that interest them particularly.
A narrow, unbalanced curriculum will lead to narrow, unbalanced education.

Assessment is the process of making judgments about students’ progress and attainment. The problem for creative education is not the need for assessment, but the nature of it. Assessment should support students’ learning and achievements. In practice, it tends to dominate the priorities and general ethos of education.

An assessment has two components: a description and a comparison. Assessments compare individual performances with others and rate them against particular criteria. One problem with systems of assessment that use letters and grades is that they are usually very light on description and very heavy on comparison.

A second problem in grade-based assessment is that a single letter or number does not convey the complexities of the process that it is meant to summarize. And some outcomes cannot be adequately expressly in this way. As Eliott Eisner once put it, “not everything important is measurable and not everything measurable is important.” One way to enhance the value of assessment is to separate out these elements of description and comparison. Portfolios of various sorts allow for detailed descriptions of the work that students have actually done, with examples and reflective comments by themselves and others. Providing clear and detailed criteria is also a way of improving the transparency of assessments. Peer group assessment is a process by which students contribute to the judgments of each other’s work and to the criteria by which it is assessed. These approaches can be especially valuable in both formative and summative assessments of creative work.
(以打分为基础的评价系统存在的第二个问题是单一的字母或数字是无法表达所需要总结的学习过程的复杂性的。一些结果无法用这种方式准确表达出来。正如教育学家艾斯纳所说,“不是所有重要的东西都可以衡量,可以衡量的东西并不都重要。”提高评价系统价值的一个方法是区分评判与比较。可以为学生建立不同形式的文件夹,对其所作工作进行具体描述和举例说明,并附上学生的自我反思和他人的评论。提供一个明确具体的评价标准也可以提高评价体系的透明度。小组互评也是一种方法。学生对彼此的工作互相评价,并且共同制定评价标准。这些方法在创造性工作的形成性评价和总结性评价中都非常有价值。)
Transforming education is not easy but the price of failure is more than we can afford, while the benefits of success are more than we can imagine.

Reading Notes, Thanks for Laura Lee