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The Art of Learning|学习之道 Josh Waitzkin
9岁已经8度获全美象棋冠军的天才儿童;父亲关于他的传奇记录被改编成电影《王者之旅》;后改行研习太极拳,21次全美太极拳冠军及世界“太极拳王”...《学习之道》是货真价实的智能和体能的双料冠军的现身说法。

qiusir:曾经的“皮肤杀手”乔希·维茨金6岁开始接触象棋,而且是在公园里。“妈妈告诉我说,她看到她的儿子在下象棋时就像是一位老人。我太过专注,以至于她觉得如果她把手放到我眼前的话都会燃烧起来。” ​​​​

0.Introduction
@Josh:我总是把自己的经历和“平行学习”和“级别转化”等联系起来。
@Josh:年纪轻轻我就逐渐意识到,名气是虚无缥缈的东西。我一直致力于自身技艺的发展,已经习惯了长时间高强度思考后辛苦换来成就与满足感。这种平静的感觉与外界的称赞毫无关系,我渴望回到那个天真无邪、有着无限创造力的阶段。
@Josh:“以数字摆脱数字”、“以形式摆脱形式”
@Josh:我意识到自己最擅长的既不是象棋也不是太极,我最擅长的是学习之道。

THE FOUNDATION
1.Innocent Moves
@Josh:妈妈告诉我,她看到她的儿子在下棋时就像是一位老人。我太过于专注,以至于她觉得如果把手放在我的眼睛和棋盘之间的话会燃烧起来。
@Josh:布鲁斯知道如何教会我更懂得约束自己,同事又不减弱我对象棋的热爱或是压抑我内心的想法。很多老师都不懂得这种平衡状态,而是逼学生采取某种固定模式。
@Josh:我知道自己的确很难管的,我的父母培养出了一个任性的孩子。很小的时候父母就鼓励我参与在家中举办的激烈的晚餐会辩论赛,讨论艺术与政治。他们教导我要勇于表达自己的想法,同时也要考虑别人的想法,而不要盲目地追求权威。
@Josh:布鲁斯不会一味地庇护我---有的老师为了避免自己太过独裁,会表扬小选手所有的决定,无论是好是坏。他们的本意是打造信心,但相反的,这样只会打击小孩子的客观性,鼓励自我纵容,或许最糟糕的一点就是,他们创造出老师和学生间的不诚实的关系,这一点是任何一个聪明的孩子都能感觉出来的。
@Josh:最重要的一点就是,布鲁斯进一步加深了我对象棋的热爱,并且从未让技术性的东西影响了我对象棋的内在感觉。
@qiusir:象棋大师Josh的成长离不开,天赋(良知为吾师)、家庭(父母培养出一个很任性的孩子)、环境(公园的棋友不断叫我更多的技术,街边的粗莽和正规的教育的完美结合让对手根本招架不住)、投入(下棋的孩子像是一位老人)...“不止一次,比赛甚至还没开始,对手就坐在棋盘旁开始抹眼泪。”

2.Losing to Win
@Josh:我们把失败看作了虚张的勇气下的癌症,当局势开始失去控制时,原有的信念瞬间倒塌。
@Josh:在我小的时候,妈妈总会把她柔软的面颊贴在我的脸上,提醒我,我不用一直都那么坚强。她安静却强大无比,总是无底线地支持我,一心放在我身上,一直鼓励我随心而动,即使方向骗了或者追求的目标有点奇怪。
@Josh:赢得大的赛事后,一切都那么美好,连天也是蓝的;而输掉比赛时,一切就变了样,连梦想都那么荒诞不经。
@Josh:我用辛勤的练习来应对比赛的挫败与心灰意冷。
@Josh:杰夫的爸爸让他每天学12小时的象棋。他爸爸是个粗暴的独裁主义者,以救世主自居,用他疯狂的精力与想法打造除了一台完美的象棋机器。但我很尊重杰夫,他热爱象棋,并且认真的程度无人能及。
@qiusir:不知道杰夫后来的生活和象棋是否有关,狼爸的教育即便很成功也有很大风险;而乔西自己后来也被电影等干扰的转行了吧。成名太早...

3.Two Approches to Learning
@Josh:1有的人能挤进高高在上的王者之位,而大多数只能望而兴叹,其中的差别到底在哪?2比赛的意义何在?如果野心会带来失望,为什么还要一如既往地追求卓越呢?这两大问题的答案源于一种经过深思熟虑的方法,它能激励弹性,能够将多样化的追求和每天对于过程的享受练习在一起。大多数有追求的人沮丧地偏离了主道,而那些能走在成功道路上的人却始终沿着正确的轨迹稳步向前。
@Josh:发展心理学领域的领军人物Carol Dweck对智力的“整体理论”和“渐进理论”进行了区分。整体理论思维的孩子倾向于“我在这方面很聪明”,并将成败归结于一种与生俱来、无法改变的能力水平。他们把自己的综合智力和技能水平看成是一个固定的、无法继续演变的“整体”;而渐进理论更像是“学习理论”,这样的思维更倾向于“我之所以做到了是因为我非常刻苦”,或者是“我应该更努力一点才是”。渐进理论思维的孩子倾向于世上无难事只怕有心人...Dweck的研究表明,渐进理论者更可能迎接挑战,而整体理论者更容易焦躁不安甚至放弃。
@Josh:追求卓越的过程中获得的教训比唾手可得的奖杯和荣耀意义得多。拥有健康的心态,能够从每次经历(不论好与坏)中有所心得,这样的人才能一路走下去,而且一路都能走得很开心。
@Josh:我的大部分对手都是从学习开具棋路开始的。一旦从开局学起,你就没了退路,这一生都会用来牢记、更新“象棋百科全书”。这就像会上瘾一样,具有积极危险的心理影响。这就像从老师办公桌上偷试卷,而不是学解数学题。你可能会通过考试,但你其实什么也没有学到,更重要的是你没有领会到学习本身的价值和美妙之处。
@Josh:他们努力避开挑战,但最终是现实的世界主动找到他们。他们的自信心是那么脆弱,不堪一击。对他们来说,失败永远是一场危机,而不是一个成长的机遇
@qiusir:求师得“A Question A Chance”和乔西的观点不谋而合。Dweck的渐进理论的另外表述是前些年提到可持续性发展吧,但我们逐渐开放的思维似乎更引导学生的整体理论。

4.Loving the Game
@Josh:一个粗鲁的家伙竟和我下了9个多小时,我当时只有10岁。我必须培养“头脑马拉松”能力。
@Josh:真的遇到问题时,学会游泳的唯一办法就是下水。
@Josh:他输了棋,人也很伤心。告诉他这没关系无异于在侮辱他的智商。如果他在哭的话,就让他在她的肩膀上哭个够。她应该告诉他,他让她感到多么自豪。
@Josh:成功的美妙知识瞬间的感觉,甚至在我们吸气时它就走远了。
@qiusir:“作为大人我们要自己承担责任,培养一种健康、自由的思维方式”。常见家长和老师因为孩子发怒,其实这何尝不是一种危机转嫁呢。

5.The Soft Zone
@Josh:思维以电流的速度在运作,复杂的问题凭着直觉迎刃而解,你越来越进入到了棋局的灵魂深处,时间飞逝,我的改变已不存在了,存在的只是一种幸福的专注,纯粹的思考,绝对的意识流。
@Josh:古印度的一则寓言能帮你认识到“软区域”的重要性。有个人想步行穿过大陆,但当时地球上布满了荆棘。他有两个选择:一是铺一条路,征服大自然;二是做一双草鞋。做草鞋是他内心的解决方案。像“软区域”一样,他不是将成功建立在一个“服从于他”的世界或一种无法抗拒的力量之上,而是建立于才智的准备与坚韧的意志力智之上。
@qiusir:软区域一次对我来说很新颖,不同于舒适区、学习区和恐怖区的心理概念,真正的放松唤起自身的潜能?“在行为训练中,首先要学着心平气和地对待一切已发生的事;之后,我们要学着将这些事情为我所用;最后,我们要学着做到完全自给自足,创造出我们自己的地震...”

6.The Downward Spiral
@Josh:从18岁那年我在公立学校当了四年的国际象棋指导教师...这些年来我从这些孩子身上学到的东西不亚于他们从我这学到的知识。相比较于那些追逐名利的野心,正是这些孩子们与生俱来的、未被世俗玷污的好奇心打动了大多数年长于我的强劲的国际象棋竞争对手们?(后面的话没看懂)
@Josh:犯了第一个错误并不会导致什么可怕的后果,但是接踵而来的就像湍流涡旋一样的第二个错误,第三个错误,甚至第四个错误却会导致一系列灾难性的后果。...一个错误引发新的错误却往往是致命的。
@Josh:输赢之间的距离是很微小的,有很多办法都能将胜利从失败的手里夺回来。那些真正伟大的表演者们能够把握住那种时刻,让错误为他们所用,用那闪耀着紧迫感和生命力光辉的即兴创作演出来提升自己的表演水平。
@Josh:(戴耳机的)女孩被(奇迹般刹住了的)自行车撞了一下,没什么大碍。当时如果这个女孩能够及时地退回到人行道上,她就能避开意外(一辆出租车从同样的路口快速开来把她撞飞,像一条抛物线...狠狠地撞上一根街灯柱,不省人事地躺在一片血泊中),然而取而代之的是,这个女孩转过头来咒骂着那个快速登着自行车离去的人。
@qiusir:漩涡效应就如我之前说的,学习遇到的问题不是问题,问题连着问题才是问题;教书的正确并非正确,(学生、学校和家庭等)正确接着正确才是正确。

7.Changing Voice
@Josh:一直鞭策我不断前进的不是壮志凌云的野心,更多的是探索自我的渴求。
@Josh:把象棋和生活在我的生命中合二为一。
@Josh:每场比赛一结束我都会立刻把棋局输入到我的电脑,并且记录下来我的思考过程和再对峙的不同阶段出现了哪些心理反映。
@qiusir:很难说天才出自勤奋和精细化的自我管理,还是执着和细节的雕琢是天才本身的特质。

8.Breaking Stallions
@Josh:拉祖维拥有一种佛教僧侣般的平和的气质,总是带着一宗亲切而又稍有嘲讽的笑容。与他共事仅仅几个小时之后,我有一种感觉,他对我的了解已经几乎比我生命中其他所有人都要透彻。好像我是在于星际大战里的尤达大师比赛下棋。
@Josh:德沃斯基那满是厚茧的手指操作起象棋子来竟然显出了几分优雅。他很乐于看见那些天赋异禀的国际象棋头脑们因为他提出的难题而冥思苦想。当他悠闲地享受着权利带给他的快乐时,那些年轻的冠军选手们勇于创新的创造力正慢慢被消耗掉。
@Josh:疾病是健康派来最有说服力的大使。
@qiusir:关于德沃斯基的描写很像是重点学校里经验丰富的理解教师一样,我偶尔也会有那种休闲体验...

MY SECOND ART
9.Beginner's Mind
10.Investment in Loss
@Josh:当我放弃自尊心的阻碍,用一种开放性思维学习时,很多其他学生看起来都是僵硬地站在那里,不停滴重复他们的错误。因为他们不能舍弃旧习,所以他们没有办法取得进步。当老师给他们提建议时,他们试图为自己辩解。他们太不愿意出错,以至于被框住而无法前进。
@Josh:一直以来我都坚信如果一个受过训练的学生可以避免再次犯同样的错误---不管是技术上还是心理上---他就能成为某个另有的佼佼者。当然,这种事情是不可能的---我们注定要重复犯某些关键性的错误...
@Josh:我逐渐放松,在我看来好像他的速度变慢了
@Josh:乔丹之所以伟大并不在于他的完美,而是他乐意把冒险作为他的一种生活方式。
@qiusir:害怕犯错、拒绝改变,就如不舍得离开摇篮一样,巨婴特征吧。

11.Making Smaller Circles
@Josh:学习的基本原则就是要钻研微观的细节事物从而来理解是什么促成了这些宏观上的问题。
@Josh:有效地压缩技能的外在表现同时又紧紧围绕技能的内在实质。一段时间之后,广度就会慢慢缩小饿力量则会逐渐增加。我把这种方法叫做“划小圈”。
@Josh:我们能成为顶尖选手并没有什么秘密,而是对可能是基本技能的东西有更深的理解。
@qiusir:“划小圈”是不是可以理解为分解动作?或是细节的放大...

12.Using Adversity
@Josh:在所有运动的基本准则中,使得身体技能得到发挥的关键就在于内在的驱动,但我们却很容易在磨练中途就和这种内在失去了联系。
@Josh:基本上,我总会在受伤的第二天就回到训练场,想着如何利用这种新情况来提高我某些方面的技能。
@qiusir:天才不仅是对成功的渴望,更是成功路上的执着、精细和理性。

13.Slowing Down Time
@Josh:直觉是我们在这个世界上最珍贵的指南针,它是无意和有意思维之间的桥梁,我们一定要和使直觉起作用的因素保持联系。
@Josh:处在高水平中的每个人都对想起有很多深入的了解,而成就伟大的原因很大部分在于内在的风度和意识思维的放松,后者可以让非意识自由流淌。
@Josh:在象棋大师脑海中存在的信息组块使得他能够用更少的有意识思维观察到更多的东西。
@Josh:我拉拽他右腕部的动作包含二三十个微小的细节,以这些细节为基础我可以就对手的细微反应而变换我的动作。当我静立在地面上,绊倒对手的右脚时,我对这个环节的洞察可能包含了四十个变化。
@Josh:时间之所以感觉到变慢了是因为我们会本能地把注意力集中在一小块重要信息上,这样我们的处理器就可以当它是可以大字体现实那样对其进行分解。
@qiusir:电影里武林高手的对决有类似时间变慢的慢镜头,而对于大师,还是那句话,上帝存在与细节之中。

14.The Illusion of the Mystical
@Josh:我把训练过程拍摄下来,每一周我都会将这些视频进行细致分解剖析。
@qiusir:乔西的那股子认真劲,即便是当老师,也一定是顶级的教师。

BRINGING IT ALL TOGETHER
15.The Power of Presence
@Josh:在每一个领域,区分强者和弱者的标准很大程度上取决于处在危急关头是否能够保持清醒的头脑,保持冷静,从容自如。
@Josh:如果我们只以“度过此生”来作为生活的标准,那么永远都不能指望杰出。如果发自内心深处且灵活的从容成了习性,那么生活、艺术和学习将会变得丰富多彩,而这种丰富多彩能带给你不断的惊喜和愉悦。
@Josh:如果我们想追求卓越,那么我们就必须适应自我激励和控制的生活方式。从容应对所发生的一切,像呼吸一样自如。
@qiusir:表面上看,优秀是一种选择。另外来讲,优秀是内在“良知”的唤醒、茁壮和绽放。

16.Searching for the Zone
@Josh:(小时候)我会花数小时在太阳下敲打椰壳,不愿说不...
@Josh:当我棋路下得不错的时候,我就想法果断坚决。
@Josh:心理放下得越多,瑕疵攻击就越猛烈。
@Josh:若你在读书而已目光涣散,把书放下,深呼吸,拿起书,立即双眼有神。
@qiusir:学习的节奏很重要,松弛有度,很多人的问题不是不努力,而是不会努力...

17.Building Your Trigger
@Josh:我们不仅必须善于等待,还必要享受等待。等待不仅仅是等待,它还是生活。
@Josh:当我们很自然地沉浸在“平凡”中的可爱的细微之处,无聊这个词变得很遥远也很荒唐。
@Josh:存在本身教会了我如何生活。
18.Making Sandals
@Josh:我们不应该被愤怒控制或否认自己的愤怒,而是必须从某种程度上将我的愤怒引导到一种极度全神贯注的状态。
@Josh:世上总是有讨厌的人,而我必须学会怎样以冷静的头脑应对。愤怒失控会让我的人生止步不前。我必须认清问题出在我的身上而不是对方...没有体育道德的选手是我最好的老师。
19.Bringing It All Together
@Josh:只有当我们的工作超越熟练阶段而成为自身的一种表达的时候,学习才成为一门真正的艺术。
20.Taiwan...

@qiusir:真没想到乔西用一张来黑台湾的太极拳锦标赛~
@qiusir:封面上“美国公认的学习第一书”完全是个广告语,但阅读本书的确带来很多收获。
@qiusir:办公室里看这有关学习方法的书,其中看到母亲对他的包容和保护竟眼眶湿润,不巧有学生来问事情搞得很尴尬,也不知道他发现没有...
@qiusir:苏鸿雁和谢京秀两位翻译有的地方象棋,有的地方国际象棋,称谓上统一好吧;个别长语句不通;书中提到本书的第几张也用书名号看着很不喜欢,还以为参考书目呢...

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网易上不经意看到这篇报道[?],读了几遍!自然留意了后面推荐佐藤学(东京大学教育学博士,日本教育学会前会长)的《教师花传书》...
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在任何一个国家,教师教育改革都是国家政策的中心。历史上作为“专家”被认定的最先是牧师,而后是大学教师,然后是医生、律师,再然后是中小学教师。
国际教师教育学倡导“教师成长三大定律”:越是扎根教师的实践需求越是有效;越是扎根教师的鲜活经验越是有效;越是扎根教师的实践反思越是有效
21世纪的社会里,教师的专家形象要从“教的专家”转型为“学的专家”,要拥有“反思性实践者”的涵养。
教师的人生是持续学习的人生。向儿童学习、向教材学习、向同事学习、向社区学习、从自身的经验中学习---正是这种持续学习的步伐,构成了教师的人生。
没有传统,创造也无从谈起。
在转型期中最要注意的是不能忽视传统,不能放弃对创新的挑战。
花是心,种是技。“花”是表现出来的美,而“技”则意味着基于体验的身体技法。如果想要了解花,首先要知晓技。花是美丽的表现,其心(思想、哲学)是摒弃私心杂念,日复一日练功修养所成的技(基于体验的身体技法)所成就的。
这本《教师化传书》秉承《风姿花传》的精神,指出了教师洗练教学,形成妙花的心(思想、哲学)以及花的种(基于体验的身体技法、智慧)的方法。

第一部分:专家型教师的成长

教师的学习与成长:《化传书》的启示
《教师化传书》的标题源于世阿弥的名著《风姿花传》。联想到当前“教师备受欺凌”的现状,似乎《教师武艺贴》更招人喜欢吧。《风姿花传》是世阿弥40岁前后的论著,“微风下,心与心的传承即为花,故名‘风姿花传’”。其父观阿弥52岁去世前所表演的能乐仍能令人深感“恢弘绚烂”。
最令人称道的是写成“”(态)而读作“技”的这个词。这里的技与我们一般所说的“技能skill”不同,它表示一种身与心的构造
世阿弥指出,要“慎重深入地学习”,因为“擅长者也非样样精通,拙劣者也有可取之处”。技是一种基于体验的身体的构造方式是在场的方式,具有与某种对象相关联的意味。技与心结合之时,艺术便成为“无心之花”,可谓“幽玄”的“妙花”。

作为匠人,教师的世界是由“熟练的技能”、“经验”、“直觉或秘诀”构成的;而作为专家,教师的世界是由“科学的专业知识”、“技术”、“反思与创造性探究”构成的。教师是通过“模仿”与“修炼”来学习的“匠人”与通过“反思”和“研究”来学习的专家的兼备。可以说教师的能力是匠人的能力和专家能力的综合体。(理发的“小贺”师傅要创业,工作室的地点已经选好。我作为他十多年的老客户必须尽一点力,找朋友帮他参谋个名号,目前有“贺发童颜”、“贺新郎”、“贝加”、“贺”... ​​​​他选的是匠人...

创造性的教师技法:教学“妙花”的绽放
学习是从(他者的)问题出发,动员自己与伙伴的经验与知识,直至解决问题的系统探究过程。
虽然身为祖母,但我想通三年级的学生一样一起投入学习。
“作为对话实践的学习”理论,与物的对话实践、与他人的对话实践、与自己的对话实践三位一体。
教师的实践研究并不是要加入“新的东西(知识、技术)”,而是要“不断砥砺真正必要的东西,下决心剔除不必要的东西”。
教学开始之初教室中的“气息”就决定了此后的一切,因此教室中的“气息”对教学的成败至关重要。
“哎?”的惊叹声如同水的波纹一样扩散开去。这种对未知事物表现出的知性的惊叹,对学习来说是最为重要的感受之一。可以说“气息”的起伏和“冲刺与挑战的学习”通过“个体间的融合”形成了创造性活动的基础。
教师的时间可以通过“流水的时间”(不断奔腾向前的)和“积雪的时间”(可逆的、循环的、多重的)两者之间的交叉点来认识。古希腊人曾用“量的时间”和“质的时间”来表示两者的差异。

教师的居方(position)
技能skill意味着与对象、关系、情境相分离的主题的能力,而“態”则意味着在于对象的关系中生成的技法,它是在某种情境中创设和表现出来的。
辨物居方,辨别众物的性质与条件等因素,使之各得其所。
教师的工作是从“接受”(倾听)开始。

倾听儿童的声音:教学实践的基点
学习的权利是儿童人权的核心,而学习则是希望的核心...
“倾听”是教师在课堂中的核心活动。关怀理论教育家Nel Noddings“很多教师能够理解学生发言的意义,但能够完全理解发言的学生,这样的老师就不多了。”纤细而柔和地回应每位学生的发言或言语...教学实践中,“倾听”大有深意。

作为匠人的教师:craftsmanship
教师即是在复杂的知性实践中寻求高度的反思与判断的专家professional,同时也是通过经验积累练就了经验与智慧的践行教育实践的匠人craftsman。教师的工作具有双重性,既担负公共的责任,又要绽放教学实践的“妙花”,即兼备专家和匠人的双重特质。
日语中的职人及时本书的匠人。匠人工作的中心就是倾听。“”。建筑工匠不但要倾听屋主的声音,还要依靠倾听来自土地、木材等的声音。職是“耳”边搭配“咒语”沟通。如果在“言”字边上搭配“咒语”的话就是“識”。(汉子学家白川静所作《字统》)可以说職是通过“倾听”“神”的声音、凭借神的技能而践行工作。
对教师来说,什么事最重要的能力?倾听。
通过倾听这一被动行为,教师能够完完全全接纳儿童,接纳教材的课题,接受自己内部的声音。作为匠人的教师,倾听儿童的声音,倾听教材的声音,倾听自己的声音,这是提升自身工作最重要的途径。
教师养成匠人气质的过程中遵循以下三种规范:注重对每位儿童的尊重;关注教材的可能性与发展性;注重自身的教育哲学。

技艺的传承与学习:作为匠人的成长
如果还不知道花,那至少要知道种。花是心,种是技。花是能乐所表现出的美,而技则是指能乐的表现技法。
当课堂上儿童的潜力得到解放时,我感动得几近流泪。
我该做的不是追捧“优秀的教师”,而是探究在日常接触中的每一位教师的实践之花,从而研究花之种。(我也反思我关注的不应该仅仅是资优学生...
我从青年人身上学到了很多。
对于技艺、技法的学习来说,最为重要的不是各种技能的训练,而是获得实践的总体愿景,形成风格。

专家型教师的养成:教职的专业性
在日本,教师在法律上称为“教员”,在战前和战后分别被置于“国家的仆人”以及“公众的仆人”的位置。
即便教师被看作专家,也往往被看作是包含消极意味的准专家。因为教师不像医生或者律师那样具有“高度专业的知识与技术”。教师是任何人都可以从事的“easy work”
在外界看来,教师的实践中“匠人”的特质更为显著,但在内行看来,其作为“专家”的特质才是核心。教师的实践在外界看来是“看不见的实践”。
有些课堂虽然完成了教学但却没有促进学习。很多课“形式完备而内容空乏”。
教师自身比任何人都更爱读书,更加好学,只有那些学者才允许执掌教坛。但现在这一根基已经崩溃,这可算是教育最大的危机了。

专家型教师的学习:教师作为学的专家
亚里士多德:对知晓最好的证明就是能够教授
我所提出的“学习”的概念是“作为对话实践的学习”。与物的对话(创造世界)、与他者的对话(结交伙伴)、与自己的对话(重塑自我),这三种对话的实践称为“学习”。
即便是精通学习科学以及相关诸多科学理论,也不一定能够开展创新造性的教学实践,其最主要的原因是,教师的实践具有这些科学都无法解释的“不确定性”。

从成熟型教师的教学中学习
教师作为专家的成长无法完全依靠个人的力量达成,而需要借由通过共同挑战创造性的实践而形成的“同僚性”的专家共同体来达成。
教师的专业性知识基础由三种素养沟通,人和社会相关的大量的一般性素养、成为学科基础的学问素养以及支持教学实践方法的职业素养。
夏草茫茫,豪强梦湮。(夏天草凄凉,功名昨日古战场,一枕梦黄粱。)(一将功成万骨枯同样适用教师,只看成绩和只看钱一样...

教师的持续学习
教师的人生就是持续学习的人生。向儿童学习,向教材学习,向同事学习,向社区学习,从自身的经验中学习---正是这种持续学习的步伐,构成了教师的人生。
当前日本的教师生存在“教师受难的时代”。从来没有哪个时代像的教师像今天的教师那样工作困难、丧失了人们的信赖与尊重,每一位教师都怀抱着孤独和不安。“又是严峻的一年”。
教育改革风暴不断。在对教师们的日常工作欠考虑和理解的情况下强制执行,其结果是教师被不怀好意的媒体猛烈攻击,基于对教师的不信任所产生的择校、学校评价、教师评价不断下压,学校现场越发令人窒息。
教师要学会言说自己的修养与成长。教师工作的本质不只是“教学”,更是“学习”。向同事学习。当学校以“同僚性”为基础进行组织和运作时,这样的学校最适合教师的学习和成长。
总是发言的人以及声音最大的人士无法进行创造性的实践的。

成熟型教师洗练的实践帮助他们形成自我的风格,并不断从内部突破、凝练,从而支持了自己的成长。他们都是安静的教师,是谨言慎行的教师,是对工作无比诚恳、细致周到的优秀教师。
教师的工作室看不见的工作,教师专业性的内核是看不见的、模糊的。因此,成熟教师的成长是极为个性化的。

第二部分:我所遇见的教师们

小学低年级的文学课
教学的妙花是教师长期的修养与钻研的结晶。
教学开始前的“气息”或“气场”提前决定了教学的一切。只要观察教师以怎样的语言来开展教学,其教学的程度就大致可以判断了。语言简洁与精当。

高中改革中的校长领导力
上课死气沉沉,下课如鸟兽散。
才木校长鼓励学生与教师以“学习”为中心,建立“让学生找到自我”的学校。学习共同体。
从课堂实践中看到的
能够指导教师的只有教师。从教学的外围观察的世界与教师自身从内部观察的世界完全是两码事
教师的实践是invisible practice,教师的卓越能力是invisible professional competence
与伙伴共同成长
石井老师每周六下班后,就会带着教学记录,花上单程三个小时的实践去参加神户市冰上正先生主持的教学研讨会。教师靠个人的力量是无法成长的,只有与同伴教师一起,通过协同研究才能积累作为专家的修养。

校长的领导力
去他们的学校,而不是去我的学校。
课程组织和学校组织的三原则:少即是多、组织与构造越简单越好、事情越小越精细。
对所有的教师都心怀敬意、充满信赖的校长毫无疑问都是优秀的校长。
校长的领导力首先表现为“接受”(负起责任)。

屹立学校改革潮头的校长:学习共同体的构建
学校中学习能力最差,但却最需要学习的人士是教师。教师和小偷都不愿让人看见手里的东西。是否擅长教学常常是天生的对于教师的成长来说没什么大不了的。
业已启动的永远的革命。
令初中焕然一新的校长
教师的音调下降的同事课堂变成了安静而沉稳的空间。
满怀着希望之时,自身就会永生。

教师们的坚守
如果谁因为有不能独立解决的问题而自言自语,融洽的协同学习关系就会产生。一旦问题解决了,学生们又各自进行自己的学习。这样的光景是比任何教学都新鲜的、革命性的。
十年前我曾受到小χ老师的一封信,信中诉说了他在学校中经历的苦难,令我不禁为之痛哭。
任何学校都是这样的,那些尊重每位儿童的尊严,如同珍视自己的眼睛一样珍视课堂、珍视自己的教育哲学的教师们,往往都背负着受难者的宿命。无奈又悲哀,这就是教师的人生现实。

第三部分:教师生涯

专家型教师养成的沃土
医生是在病床变养成的。学校才是教师养成的真正沃土。
基于对教学的观察与记录进行反思性研究,是日本的“独门秘籍”。
成熟型教师怀着初心相互学习、共同成长...
从课堂事件中学习
师范生们在没有任何教学的经验时,总是流露出傲慢,这往往是毫无经验的人对教学的偏见。
教学实践不是“改掉了缺点就好了”那么简单,教师的成长也不是那么单纯的事情。指出某个缺点,可能也正是抹杀了这位教师的优势。
教师必须遵从的规范
尊重每一位学生的学习的尊严、尊重教材的发展性、尊重自己的教育哲学
佐藤学回访三十年前访问过的学校,学校的老师拿出了当时的校本研修记录;1972年毕业的锦织校长从开始当老师至今的35年里不断反复阅读同一本书---杜威的《学校与社会》...​
转型期的教师
一直追求“教学”能力提升的教师总体来说往往对“学习”是怠慢的、无能的。对于学习来说,最为重要的资质是慎重、深刻,那些将统治儿童作为工作的教师,仍然是独善其身而傲慢无礼的。从教的专家到学的专家的自我变革绝非易事。
没有传统,创造也无从谈起。

不被学校外部的各种动向和诱惑所迷惑,不被媒体报道所困扰,不被外部强加的课题所压迫,专心守护每位儿童的学习,探究每一个教材的发展性,更多地创造与同事交流学习的机会,认认真真地组织日常教学实践,这是比任何事情都更为要紧的。
教师的工作绝不是花里胡哨的,而是由“小事”累积起来的。与此相比,学校外的教育改革讨论的往往是“大事”,那些外行人用粗俗的言语争论着,通过媒体使之成为人们日常消费的谈资。


“课堂革命是要保障每一个学生的学习权”“家长要从参观学习转型为参与学习”“宁静的革命”
“如果说19世纪和20世纪的教师是教学的专家,21世纪的教师则该是学习的专家。”“学习的设计和反思将成为今后教师教学的工作重心。”“21世纪教师工作的本质不只是教学,更是学习。”“培养教师要像培养医生、律师一样。”“加拿大没有一个老师在黑板前独白,学生们全部都在围坐着开展协同学习。”“越是发达国家,学习时间越短,学业成就越高,因为它们注重学习的质,而不是仅仅通过增加学习量来提高学业成就。”
“实现21世纪教育转型的学校具备这样一些特点:同时追求质量和平等、从程序型课程(习得、巩固)转变成项目型课程(思考、探究)、协同学习等。”
“而这样的学习,是从相互倾听开始的。倾听本身就是一种学习参与。倾听他者的声音,是学习的出发点。”

17

Out of Our Minds: Learning to be Creative Sir Ken Robinson
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The book looks at the nature of personal talent and creativity and the conditions in which it flourishes.

The more complex the word becomes, the more creative we need to be to meet its challenges.
I trust you will find a great deal here to interest and engage you.
These standards were designed for other times and for other purposes.
We will not succeed in navigating the complex environment of the future by peering relentlessly into a rear-view mirror.(通过后视镜来观察是无法在未来复杂的环境中顺利通行)
We are living in a world that is changing faster than ever and facing challenges that are unprecedented.

Creativity is a rare talent.
A culture of creativity has to involve everybody, not just a select few.
As our case is new, so we must think anew and act anew.
We are not going back to the good old days.
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image via edutopia[?]教育乌托邦,Utopia“没有的地方”或者“理想完美的境界”,edutopia教育理想国。)
Government are pouring vast resources into education reform.
Parent lie awake at night worrying about the quality of their children's education.
Lead a life that has meaning and purpose.
After the arrival of television, the world was never the same place again.
Some people struggled to see why it would replace horse and carriages.

Like the printing press, the motorcar changed the world in ways that its inventors could not have imagined.
He could not have foreseen the mushrooming expansion of the Internet.

The evolution of the Internet has been driven not only innovation in technology but also by unleashing the imaginations and appetites of millions of users, which in turn are driving further innovations in technology.

Digital technologies are blurring the boundaries between home and work, business an pleasure.
We live in a time when the ability to adapt is critical.
There is no agreed definition of intelligence.
Human intelligence is much richer than we have been led to believe by industrial/academic education.
You are more than you think.

For most of them it's the first time that they'll be seen in a positive light.
Make groundbreaking contribution in their own area of work.
Creating a place where children feel safe and challenged. Graduates leave with a sense of capability, endurance and resilience, owning a confidence about taking on enormous challenges in there lives.
A deep sense of value, of being loved and appreciated, and a trust for group process and cooperation, enables them to feel that excellence is in their own hands.

Students are encouraged to be leaders and schools leaders are encouraged to be visionaries. our schools strive to create a respectful, diverse, creative, exciting and reflective culture.
We are building a school system that inspires and awakens the possibilities of an engaged and vital life within our youth.
Everyone has a stake in the future of education.

Imagination is the process of bringing to mind things that are not present to our senses; creativity is the process of developing original idea that have value; innovation is the process of putting new ideas into practice.
Everyone has a huge creative capacities as a natural result of being a human being. The challenges is to develop them. A culture of creativity has to involve everybody not just a select few.

Being creative does usually involve playing with ideas and having fun, enjoyment and imagination. But creativity is also about wiring in a highly focused way on ideas and projects, crafting them into their best forms and making critical judgments along the way about which work best and why. In every discipline, creativity also draws on skill, knowledge and control. It's not only about letting go, it's about holding on.

We are all born with immense natural talents but that too few people discover what they are and even fewer develop them properly. Ironically one of the main reasons for this massive waste of talents is the very process that it meant to develop it: education.

In imagination we can bring to mind things that are not present to our senses. We can visit the past. We can review and reinterpret the past...

The problem is that many of our established ways of doing things, in business, in government and education, are rooted in old ways of thing They are facing backwards, not forwards.

The impossible yesterday is routine today, Wait until tomorrow.
Civilization is a race between education and catastrophe. The problem is that too often and in too many ways, current systems of mass education are a catastrophe in themselves. Far from looking to the future, too often they are facing stubbornly the past.

The front-loading model of education: you accumulate your educational resources at the beginning of your life and you eke them out gradually as you get older. It's also called gas tank mode: you are filled up in your mouth with an initial supply of education, which is meant to see you through the rest of life's journey.
Technology, is not technology if it happened before you were born.
We don't teach people how to deal with failure and this is a fundamental oversight.

All truth passes through three stages: first, it is ridiculed. Second, it is violently opposed. Third, it is accepted as being self-evident. Arthur Schopenhauer(叔本华)
Our ideas can enslave or liberate us.

We ask how we can measure intelligence. The assumption is that intelligence is quantifiable. We ask how can raise academic standards but do not question whether they deliver what we need to survive in the future. We ask where we can find talented people but ignore the talents of people that surround us. We look but we do not see, because our traditional common-sense assessment of abilities distract us from what is actually there. We ask how to promote creativity and innovation but stifle the processes and condition that are most likely to bring it about.
Dance is the hidden language of the soul.
Intelligence is not only diverse: it is highly dynamic.

One of the consequences of a narrow view of ability is a correspondingly wide view of disability.(对能力的狭隘认知直接导致对无能的广泛定义。)
If you're interested in the ultimate character of the physical world, at present time our only way to understand it is through a mathematical type of reasoning.
There are many aspects of the world where mathematics is unnecessary, such as love, which are very delightful and wonderful to appreciate and to feel awe about.(世界上很多的方面是用不到数学的,比如说爱情。爱情美妙绝伦,令人愉悦并产生敬畏。)

We see the world not as it is, but through a veil of conception.
Just when I found out the meaning of life, they changed it. George Carlin
(1.Just when I discovered the meaning of life, they changed it.
2.Ever notice that anyone going slower than you is an idiot, but anyone going faster is maniac?)

Creativity is a dialogue between the ideas and the media in which they are being formed. Dancers think physically.
when I ask how many of his experiments fail, he(Chemist Sir Harry Kroto) said: you're just finding out what doesn't work.
Albert Einstein: Anyone who has never made a mistake, has never tried anything new.
I don't mean to say that being wrong is the same thing as being creative but if you're not prepared to be wrong, it's unlikely that you'll ever come up with anything original.

Creative insights often occur by making unusual connection: seeing analogies between ideas that have not previously been related.(当你看到通常不被联系起来的想法的相似性时,创造性的想法就出现了。)
Personal creativity often comes from a love for particular materials. I spoke once with a professor of physics from California. He described himself as a native speaker of algebra.

Being good at something isn't a good enough reason to spend your life doing it.
I am not what has happened to me. I am what I choose to become. Carl Jung

1.If one does not understand a person, one tends to regard him as a fool.
2.Children are educated by what the grown-up is and not by his talk.
3.There are many nights as days, and the one is just as long as the other in the year's course. Even a happy life cannot be without a measure of darkness, and the word happy would lose its meaning if it were not balanced by sadness. It is fa better take things as they come along with patience and equanimity.
4.There is no coming to consciousness without pain.
5.A collection of a hundred great brains makes one big fathead.
6.The greatest and most important problems in life are all in a certain sense insoluble. They can never be solved, but only outgrown.
7.Your vision will become clear only when you can look into your own heat. Who looks outside, dreams; who looks inside, awakens.
8.Everthing that irritates us about others can lead us to an understanding of ourselves.
9.The creation of something new is not accomplished by the intellect but by the play instinct acting from inner necessity. The creative mind plays with the objects it loves.
10.We cannot change anything unless we accept it. Condemnation does not liberate, it oppresses.
11.The least of things with a meaning is worth more in life than the greatest of things without it.

Education should develop the whole child and not just their academic abilities. It should engage their feelings. physical development, moral education and creativity.

Knowledge of self is a important as knowledge of the external world. Exploring personal feelings and values is essential and so are opportunities to exercise imagination and self-expression.
One of the main roles of teachers is to draw out the individual in every child. In this sense, education is a process of self-realization.

They argued in different ways that children should be allowed to follow a natural pattern of development rather than a standard course of instruction. Above all, naturalist wanted to address the whole child: mind, body and spirit.
They promote the idea of the individual breaking free from the constraints of culture. For the rationalists, the individual becomes independent of cultural influences by the power of rational, objective though. Since objective knowledge exist independently of people and culture, the rational individual is free of culture bias and sees the world just as it is. For the naturalist, the aim is to liberate the individual spirit from the pressures of culture and reveal the authentic self.
(两者均倡导个人发展应打破文化的束缚。理性主义者认为,个人应该通过理智客观的思考独立于文化的影响。既然客观知识的存在不以人和文化的存在而转移,那么理性个人就应当不受文化偏见的左右,客观的认识世界。自然主义者的目的是为了把个体精神从文化的压迫中解放,从而展示真我。)

How we feel about something is an expression of our relationship with it, In that sense, feelings are evaluations.
As Isaac Newton famously said, if he saw further than others, it was because he stood on the shoulder of giants.
As Victor Hugo said, "nothing is more powerful than an idea whose time has come."
Nurture a culture where everyone can have new ideas.

Education is not a linear process of preparation for the future: it is about cultivating the talents and sensibilities through which we can live our lives in the present and create the future for ourselves.
Education has three core purposes:
Personal: to develop student's individual talents and sensibilities.
Cultural: to deepen their understanding of the world around them.
Economic: to enable them to earn a living and be economically productive.

As Socrates famously express it ,"Education is the kindling of a flame, not the filling of a vessel." All students have different interests, and learning styles. What and how they are taught has to engage their energies, imaginations and their different ways of learning. No one can be made to learn against his or her will. Learning is a personal choice.

Some people argue that personalizing education for every student is an impossible pipe dream: it would be too expensive and teachers simply could not give every student the necessary time and attention. There are two answers to this argument.
The first is that there is absolutely no alternative. Education is personal or it is nothing. Personalized learning is an investment not a cost.
The second argument is that it is possible to personalize learning for every student. One of the way is can be done is through the creative use of new technologies. Information technologies are among the driving forces of the economic and culture revolution and one of the reason why the industrial model of education is becoming obsolete. Some of the most powerful tool for promotion creativity, communication and collaboration ever devised now offer unprecedented opportunities for education to be personalized.

Creativity is not about a lack of constraints, often it is about working within them and overcoming them. The dynamics of culture are such that change travels in all directions. With the power of the Internet and of social networking, ideas and innovations can move quickly and inspire others to action. Sensitive policy makers will feel the change and may even say it was their idea.

(At the end of the day, what you really want is the guy who inspires you, not the guy who influenced you.)
The task of education is not to teach subjects: it is to teach students. No school is better than its teachers. When you think of your own time at school it is the people you remember: your contemporaries, and especially the teacher: the ones who turned you on and the ones who turned you off; who build you up or knocked you down. In the right context, a casual remark by a teach , or even a raised eyebrow or tone of voice can set you on a lifelong journey of discovery or put you off taking even the first step.

Creativity depends on interaction between feeling and thinking, and across different disciplinary boundaries and fields of ideas. Mastery in teaching is like mastery in any other profession. Knowing which to draw from to meet the needs of the present situation is a process of connoisseurship that expert teachers also share.
(创造力取决于感受和思考的互动,而且是跨学科跨领域的。教学上的精通等同于其他领域专家。通过汲取来满足当下的需要就是成为行家里手的过程也是教育专家所拥有的素质。)

There is a different between teaching through creativity and teaching for creativity. Good teachers know that their role is to engage and inspire their students. This is a creative process in itself. Too many teaches are hired for knowledge of their discipline rather than their interest in students. Good teacher requires personal knowledge as well as the ability to engage others.

Teaching for creativity is about facilitating other people's creative work. Teaching for creativity involves asking open-ended question where there may be multiple solutions; working in groups on collaborative projects, using imagination to explore possibilities. Teaching for creativity involves teaching creatively.

There are three related tasks in teaching for creativity: encouraging, identifying and fostering.
Encouraging: the first task in teaching for creativity in any field is to encourage people to believe in their creative potential and to nurture the confidence to try. Other attitudes important for creative leaning include: high motivation and independence of judgment; a willingness to take risk and be enterprising, to be persistent and to be resilient in the face of false starts, wrong turns and dead ends.
(鼓励人们相信自己的创造潜能以培养勇于尝试的自信。其他重要的态度包括:高度的积极性,独立判断能力,敢于冒险,有进取心,面对不成功的开始,错误的转弯和走入死胡同时的具有持之以恒和坚忍不拔的精神。)
Identifying: a second role is to help students to discover their own creative strengths.

Knowledge can be generated in many ways other than in words and numbers. Not everything we know can be put into words and numbers, nor are words and numbers all that we know. It is far all these reasons that schools have to offer curricula that are broad and balanced.

The implication of diversity is that breadth in schools should be balanced by depth. Alongside any common curriculum, there have to be opportunities for students to go more deeply into areas that interest them particularly.
A narrow, unbalanced curriculum will lead to narrow, unbalanced education.

Assessment is the process of making judgments about students’ progress and attainment. The problem for creative education is not the need for assessment, but the nature of it. Assessment should support students’ learning and achievements. In practice, it tends to dominate the priorities and general ethos of education.

An assessment has two components: a description and a comparison. Assessments compare individual performances with others and rate them against particular criteria. One problem with systems of assessment that use letters and grades is that they are usually very light on description and very heavy on comparison.

A second problem in grade-based assessment is that a single letter or number does not convey the complexities of the process that it is meant to summarize. And some outcomes cannot be adequately expressly in this way. As Eliott Eisner once put it, “not everything important is measurable and not everything measurable is important.” One way to enhance the value of assessment is to separate out these elements of description and comparison. Portfolios of various sorts allow for detailed descriptions of the work that students have actually done, with examples and reflective comments by themselves and others. Providing clear and detailed criteria is also a way of improving the transparency of assessments. Peer group assessment is a process by which students contribute to the judgments of each other’s work and to the criteria by which it is assessed. These approaches can be especially valuable in both formative and summative assessments of creative work.
(以打分为基础的评价系统存在的第二个问题是单一的字母或数字是无法表达所需要总结的学习过程的复杂性的。一些结果无法用这种方式准确表达出来。正如教育学家艾斯纳所说,“不是所有重要的东西都可以衡量,可以衡量的东西并不都重要。”提高评价系统价值的一个方法是区分评判与比较。可以为学生建立不同形式的文件夹,对其所作工作进行具体描述和举例说明,并附上学生的自我反思和他人的评论。提供一个明确具体的评价标准也可以提高评价体系的透明度。小组互评也是一种方法。学生对彼此的工作互相评价,并且共同制定评价标准。这些方法在创造性工作的形成性评价和总结性评价中都非常有价值。)
Transforming education is not easy but the price of failure is more than we can afford, while the benefits of success are more than we can imagine.

Reading Notes, Thanks for Laura Lee